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 Tamilnadu is a southern Indian state and situated on the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent. It got statehood status on 26 January 1950.


Basic Tamilnadu state information:

  • Capital: Chennai
  • High Court: Chennai
  • Legislative assembly: Chennai
  • Largest City: Chennai
  • Official Language: Tamil
  • Governor: Sh. Banwarilal Purohit
  • Chief Minister: E.K. Palaniswami
  • Legislative assembly Seats: 234(Unicameral)
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 39
  • Rajya Sabha Seats: 18
  • Districts: 38
  • Area wise rank: 10th
  • Population wise rank: 6th 
  • Population density: 550 per square Km

Geography:

  • Tamilnadu state covers 130058 sq. km areas.
  • Tamilnadu has a 906.9 km coastline area and has the third-largest coastline after Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is located between 11.12712 N and 78.6569 E.
  • Tamilnadu divided into three parts on the basis of geographical:
          (a) Hilly areas: South, West, and North-west regions of Tamilnadu.
          (b) Coastal plains: Eastern region of Tamilnadu.
          (c) Plains and Hill areas: North region of Tamilnadu.
  • Doddapetta in Nilgiris is the highest peak of Tamilnadu. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at Nilgiris hills.
  • The climate in Tamilnadu is tropical mainly near the sea. State receives rain through the summer monsoon and winter monsoon. 
  • The Cauvery river, Vaigai river, and Polar river are the main rivers in Tamilnadu. The Cauvery river is the longest river in the state.
  • Red soil (62%), Black soil (12%), alluvial soil, and laterite soil are mainly found in Tamilnadu.
  • The tropical rain forest is generally found in the western ghat which is situated in Tamilnadu.

Boundaries of Tamilnadu state:

State Symbols:

State Symbol

Name

Mammal

Nilgiri Tahr

Bird

Emerald dove

Flower

Gloriosa lily

Tree

Palm tree

Dance

Bharatanatyam

           

Districts:

Tamilnadu is divided into 33 districts.

Administrative Division

Districts

North

Chennai, Cuddalore, Chengalpattu, Kallakurichi, Kanchipuram, Ranipet, Tiruvannamala, Tirupattur, Vellore, Villupuram

West

Coimbatore, Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Erode, Karur, Krishnagiri, Namakkal, Nilgiris, Salem, Tirupur

Central

Ariyalur, Mayiladuthurai, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli, Tiruvarur

South

Kanyakumari, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai, Tenkasi, Theni, Thoothukudi, Tirunveli, Virudhunagar.


Facts about Tamilnadu districts:

Largest district(Area wise)

Tiruvannamalai

Smallest district(Area wise)

Chennai

Largest district(population)

Chennai

Smallest district(population)

Perambalur

Highest literacy rate district

Kanyakumari

Lowest literacy rate district

Dharmapuri


Economy:

(A) Agriculture:

  • Major Food Crops: Rice, Jowar, Maize, Ragi, and Pulses.
  • Major Cash Crops: Sugarcane, Cotton, Coconut, Tea, and Coffee.
  • 1st Position in Production: Flowers, Bananas, Tapioca. 
  • Cauvery delta region is known as the " Rice bowl of Tamilnadu".
  • 70% population of Tamilnadu depends upon agriculture and its related activities.

(B) Industry:

  • Main industries: Electronics, Automobiles, Textile Industries, and leather production industries.
  • Chennai is known as " Detroit of India".
  • The textile industry in Tamilnadu has the largest spinning industry in India and produces 40% yarn of the total production of India.
  • Coimbatore is known as " Manchester of South India"
  • Tirupur is the largest exporter of knitwear in India.
  • Tamilnadu has 60% total production of India and 50% total export of India in leather.

Demographics:

According to Census 2011, the population of Tamilnadu:

Population

7.21 Crore

Annual Growth 

15.61%

Population % in India

5.96%

Population Density 

555 per Sq. Km

Sex Ratio

996

Child Sex Ratio

943

Literacy Rate

80.09%

 

Religion

Percentage

Hinduism

87.58%

Muslim

5.86%

Christianity

6.12%

Others

0.28%


Language

Percentage

Tamil

89.41%

Telugu

5.65%

Kannad

1.67%

Urdu

1.76%


Transport:

(A) Airport:

  • Four international airports situated at Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, and Tiruchirapalli in Tamilnadu.
  • Two domestic airports situated in Vellore and Salem.

(B) Road:

  • Tamilnadu state covers 5006.14 km of national highways.
  • Big cities such as Chennai, Madurai, and Coimbatore, etc. are well connected through national highways roads.
  • Tamilnadu is part of the golden quadrilateral of the National Highways.
  • The state transport buses operate by the TNSTC.

(C) Railways:

  • Railways in the Tamilnadu state operate by the Southern railway and its headquarter situated in Chennai.
  • Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a UNESCO world heritage site and is part of the mountain railways of India.
  • Pamban bridge is a famous railway bridge and maintained by Indian railways. This bridge connects the mainland of Tamilnadu to Pamban island.
Pamban Bridge 

  • Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai are major stations of Tamilnadu state.

(D) Seaports:

  • 3 major ports of India situated in Tamilnadu. These ports are Chennai, Ennore, and Thoothukudi.
  • Miniports: Cuddalore, Nayapattam.

Tourism:

  • Mahabalipuram: The Dravidian architecture types temples and monuments of the 8th century situated in Mahabalipuram. Shore temple is a very important temple.
  • Madurai: known as " Cultural capital of Tamilnadu", "the Athens of East", "City of temples". Meenakshi temple is a very popular temple in Madurai.
  • Kanyakumari: famous for the Vivekanand memorial, Thanumalaya, and the southernmost points in India.
  • Thanjavur: Very popular Brihadeshwara temple(UNESCO world heritage site) situated here.
  • Rameswaram: One of the Chardham of India situated in Rameswaram. 
  • Auroville: Ashram of Aurobindo
  • Kanchipuram: known as "The Golden City of Temple" and 2nd holiest city of India after Varanasi.
  • Dhanuskodi: known as " India's Phantom town".
  • Hill stations: Ooty, Kodaikanal (Princess of Hill station), Yelagiri, Coonoor, Nilgiri, or Blue mountain, etc.

Culture and Traditions:

  • Dance: Bharatanatyam (One of eight classical dances in India).
  • Music: Carnatic music
  • Festivals: Pongal, Thaipusam, Mahamaham, Karthigai deepam, Jallikattu bull festival.

Educational Institutions:

  • IIT: Chennai
  • NIT: Trichy & Karaikal
  • IIM: Trichy
  • Central University of Tamilnadu: Tiruvarur
  • NFIT: Chennai
  • Indian Institute of Handloom technology: Salem

Research Institutions:

  • Central leather research institute: Chennai
  • Central Institute of Brackishwater aquaculture: Chennai




























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