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The Eastern Ghats are discontinued hill ranges and run parallel to the eastern coastal plain of India. Eastern ghats are eroded and dissected by four east-flowing rivers mainly Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, and Cauvery. 

Eastern Ghats local names:

  • Purva Ghats
  • Mahendra parvatam
  • Toorpu kanumalu
  • Kizhakku thodarchi malaigal

Geography:

  • The Eastern Ghats stretch from south of Mahanadi river (Odisha) to the Vaigai river (Tamilnadu).
  • The eastern ghats are located between the Deccan plateau and the eastern coastal plains.
  • The  Eastern Ghats pass through the five states Odisha(25%), Telangana (5%), Andhra Pradesh(40%), Karnataka (5%), and Tamilnadu(25%).
  • The Eastern Ghats is located between longitudinal: 76°50 E to 86°30E  and latitude: 11°31 N to 22°N. It extends 1131 km from north to east and 1053 km from east to west.
  • The Eastern Ghats cover 75000 sq. km area. The width of ghats decreases from north(200 km) to south(100 km).
  • The average height of the Eastern ghats is approximately 600 meters from the mean sea level. Jindhagada peak (1690 meters) in Andhra Pradesh is the highest peak in the eastern ghats and other names are " Sitamma Konda" or "Arma Konda".
  • The Eastern Ghats formed from the breakdown of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia and the assembly of Gondwanaland. 
  • The Igneous rocks, metamorphic gneisses are found types of rock formations. Limestone, Bauxite, and Iron ores are mainly found in the eastern ghats.
  • The Eastern Ghats were built before the Western Ghats and its height is lower than the western ghats.
  • The eastern ghats and western ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills.
  • Red soil, laterite soil, alluvial soil, and black soil are mainly found in the eastern ghats.

On the basis of geomorphology, topography, and climate, the Eastern ghats are divided into two regions:

(A) The North Eastern Ghats:

  • It extends from south of the Mahanadi river to the north of the Godavari river basin. 
  • The hill ranges in the North Eastern Ghats are continued and the average height is 300 to 1500 meters.
  •  Mahendragiri hills, Devagiri hills, Chandragiri, and Rampa hills are the main hill ranges.

(B) The South Eastern Ghats: 

  • It extends from south of the Godavari river to the north-west of the Cauvery river basin. 
  • The hill ranges in the South Eastern Ghats are discontinued and the height is lower than North Eastern ghats
  •  Shevaroy Hills, Palkonda hills, Seshachalam hills, Javadi hill, and Gingee hill are the main hill ranges.

Important Eastern Ghats peaks:


S. No.

Peaks

Height (Metres)

1

Arma Konda

1690

2

Deomali

1672

3

Biligirirangan hills

1552

4

Mahendra Giri

1501


Flora and Fauna:

(A) Flora:

  • The Eastern Ghats are unique for their rich biodiversity and endemism.
  • The Tropical evergreen forests, tropical semi-evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, Scrub forests, and grassland are found in the eastern ghats,
  • Cinnamon, Ficus, Acacia, Alphonse, Mangifera indica, and Sal are the main plant species in the eastern ghats.
  • Acacia, Alphonse madraspatana, Albizia thompsonii, and Cordia domestica are some endemic plant species that are found in the eastern ghats.

(B) Fauna:

  • Grey slender loris and Jerdon's courser are the endemic animal species in the eastern ghats.
  • Asian elephants, Bengal tigers, Indian Bison, Blackbuck are the main mammals in the eastern ghats.
  • Malabar Pied hornbills, Great Indian Bustard, and Indian Paradise flycatcher are the main bird species in the eastern ghats.
  • Reptiles: Mugger crocodiles, Indian blurt turtles

National parks in the eastern ghats:

National Parks

State

Fauna

Simlipal National Park

Odisha

Bengal tigers, Indian elephants

Bhitarkanika National Park

Odisha

Saltwater Crocodiles, Indian Python

Sri Venkateswara National Park

Andhra Pradesh

Grey-fronted green pigeon, Oriental white-backed Vultures


Biosphere Reserves

State

Fauna

Nagarjunasagar-srisailam Tiger reserves

Andhra Pradesh, Telangana

Bengal Tigers

Satkosia Tiger Reserve

Odisha

Bengal Tigers

Sunabeda Tiger Reserve

Odisha

Bengal Tigers

 Rivers in the eastern ghats:

  • Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, and Cauvery are the main east-flowing rivers that originated from the Western ghats. These rivers dissected the eastern ghats through erosion and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  • Penna, Sileru, Sarada, Palar, and Vellar are the main eastern ghats rivers and originated from it.

Tourist spots:

  • Deomali: the highest peak in Odisha.
  • Araku Valley: Andhra Pradesh
  • Panchamalai hills: Tamilnadu
  • Papi hills and Garhjat hills

Threats to the eastern ghats:

  • Intensive agriculture activities and large-scale plantations of Coffee and Tea.
  • Mining activities
  • Poaching, logging, forest encroachment.
  • Invasive plant species such as Lantana camora
  • Climate changes

Eastern ghats and Western ghats difference:


 

Western Ghats

Eastern Ghats

Origin

Formed after the breakdown of supercontinent Gondwanaland

Formed after the breakdown of supercontinent Rodinia and assembly of Gondwanaland

Height

The average elevation is 900 meters.

The average elevation is 600 meters.

Location

Between western coastal plains and Deccan plateau

Between Eastern coastal plains and Deccan plateau

Structure

Continuous mountain ranges

Discontinuous mountain ranges

Rivers

Krishna, Godavari, and Cauvery

Penna, Sileru, Sarada, and Palar

Age

Younger than the Eastern Ghats

Older than western Ghats








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