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Eastern coastal plains are wide stretched coastal plains in India and located between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats.

Features of Eastern coastal plains:

  • The eastern coastal plains lying along the parallel to the Bay of Bengal. 
  • These coastal plains are an example of the emergence of coastline.
  • It starts from West Bengal in the north to  Kanyakumari(Tamilnadu) in the south.
  • The average width of eastern coastal plains is 100 to 120 km. It is wider than the western coastal plains.
  • These coastal plains have leveled surfaces. The average elevation is 200-300 meters.
  • The coastal plains have very fertile soil. It consists of alluvial soil and formed due to depositional activities of rivers. The eastern coastal plains are more fertile than the western coastal plains.
  • The eastern coastal plains meet with the western coastal plains at Cape Comorin in Tamilnadu.
  • These coastal plains receive rains through both summer monsoon and winter monsoon.

Division of the eastern coastal plains:

The eastern coastal plains are divided into three regions:

(A) Utkal coastal plains:

  • It starts from the river Subarnarekha (West Bengal-Odisha border) to river Rushikulyarvana.
  • It covers 41400 sq. km area. 
  • The delta formed in the region by the Mahanadi, Baitarni, and Brdani rivers.
  • Rice is the main crop with a double-cropping pattern. Pulses, oilseed, and coconut are other crops that are grown in this region.
  • Red and black soils are found in the Utkal coastal plains.
  • Saltwater lake: Chilka lake (the largest lake in India) in Odisha. 
  • Freshwater lake: Samang and Sar.

(B) Northern Circars:

  • The northern circars start from the river Rushikwya to the Krishna river.  It is also known as "Andhra Plains".
  • These coastal plains consist of an area of Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Odisha and Telangana. It covers a 30000 sq. km area. 
  • The deltas are formed by the Mahanadi, Krishana, and Godavari rivers.
  • Freshwater lake: Kolleru lake

(C) Coromandel coastal plains:

  • Coromandel coastal plains start from the Krishna river to Kanyakumari. It is also known as "Payan Ghat" or "Tamilnadu Plains". It covers 22000 sq. km areas.
  • The deltas are formed by Krishna, Pener, and Palar rivers.
  • Crops: Rice, Sugarcane, Pulses, and Coconut.
  • These coastal plains are located on rain shadow of the western ghats so that receives less rain during the summer monsoon and more rain during the winter monsoon.
  • Lakes: Pulicat, Kaliveli 

Rivers:

  • The major rivers are east flowing and originated from the western ghats. eg. Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery. Other rivers are Mahanadi, Subrenrekha, Vaigai, and Penneru.
  • The rivers of the eastern coastal plains formed the deltas and deposited alluvial soils.
  • The plains are one of the most fertile plains in India.

Significance:

  • Intensive agriculture activities in eastern coastal plains. Rice is the main crop and sugarcane, pulses, cotton, and oilseeds are the main other crops.
  • Mining: Bauxite, Iron ores, copper, manganese, and limestone are the main mineral ores. 40% of crude oil in India situated in the eastern coastal plains. Paradip, Vizag, and Chennai are some important oil refineries.
  • Eastern coastal plains are less indented and have large continental shelves so that very few major ports are found. Major ports are Vishakapatnam(Andhra Pradesh), Paradip(Odisha), Tuticorin(Tamilnadu), and Ennore( Tamilnadu).













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