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Bihar is the eastern state of India and got statehood status on 26 January 1950. The Bihar state name is derived from Sanskrit and Pali word in which Vihara means " Abode".

Basic Information about Bihar:

  • Bihar Capital: Patna
  • Bihar High Court: Patna
  • Legislature: Patna
  • Largest city: Patna
  • Official Language: Hindi, Urdu
  • Governor: Phagu Chauhan 
  • Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar
  • Chief Justice of the High Court: Sanjay Karol
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 40
  • Rajya Sabha Seats: 16
  • Legislative assembly seats: 243
  • Legislative Council seats: 75
  • Number of Districts: 38
  • Area wise rank: 13th
  • Population Wise rank: 3rd

Geography:

  • Bihar covers  94163 Sq. km areas which comprise 2.86% geographical areas of India. 
  • Bihar is located between 25°45’ N latitude and 81°30’ E longitude. 
  • Most of the parts of Bihar state are plains made by the river Ganga and the central part of Bihar has small hills such as Rajgir hill. 
  • The Highest peak is situated in Parasnath hill and has 1350 meters in height. 
  •  River Ganga, River Gandak, River Kosi, and Budhi Gandak are important rivers of Bihar. The river Ganga is the longest river in Bihar. 
  • Many mountains and hill range situated in the central part of states such as  Rajgir hills and foothills of the Himalayas etc. 
  •  Tropical moist deciduous forests are mainly found in Bihar. 7.27% of the state is covered by forest.
  •  Bihar state has the alluvial type of soil found and these fertile plains are made by River Ganga and its tributaries.

Boundaries of Bihar State:

Bihar shares its boundaries with the three states of India and one foreign country.

State Symbol:

State Symbols

Name

Mammal

Gaur

Bird

House Sparrow 

Flower

Kachnar

Tree

Peeple 



Geographical Indications of Bihar:

Sr.No
Goods
1
Silao khaja
Foodstuff
2
Sujini embroidery work
Handicraft
3
Sikki Grass work of Bihar
Handicraft
4
Madhubani paintings
Handicraft
5
Applique (Khatwa)work of Bihar
Handicraft
6
Bhagalpur silks
Handicraft
7
Sikki grass products of Bihar
Handicraft
8
Shahi litchi
Agriculture 
9
Katarni rice
Agriculture 
10
Jardalu mango
Agriculture 
11
Maghai Paan
Agriculture 

Districts:

Bihar state has 38 districts and is divided into 9 administrative divisions.

Administrative Divisions

Districts

Bhagalpur

Bhagalpur, Banka

Darbhanga

Darbhanga, Madhubani, Samastipur

Kosi

Saharsa, Madhepura, Supaul

Magadh

Gaya, Nawda, Aurangabad, Jehanabad, Arwal

Munger

Munger, Jamui, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Begusarai, Sheikhpura

Patna

Patna, Nalanda, Bhojpur, Rohtas, Buxar and Kaimur

Purnea

Purnia, Araria, Katihar, Kishanganj

Saran

Saran, Siwan, Gopalganj

Tirhut

Muzaffarpur, West Champaran, East Champaran, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, Vaishali

 Facts about Bihar districts:

Largest district (Area wise)

Patna

Smallest district (Area wise)

Sheohar

Highest Population district

Patna

Lowest population district

Sheikhpura

Highest literacy rate district

Rohtas

Lowest literacy rate district

Purnia

Highest sex ratio district

Gopalganj

Lowest sex ratio district

Munger


 Economy:

(A) Agriculture:

  • Bihar is agriculture and its allied products economy. 
  • Most of part of Bihar is covered by alluvial soil and deposited by rivers.
  •  Paddy, Wheat, Maize, and Pulses are the main crops of Bihar. 
  • Sugarcane, Oilseeds, potatoes, Jute, and fruits are the main cash crops. 
  • 76% population of Bihar depends on agriculture and agriculture-based industries.

(B) Industry:

  • Agriculture-based industries, Food Processing, and Dairy products are the main industries in Bihar. 
  • Hajipur, Barauni, and Dalmianagar are major industrial cities in Bihar.

Flora and Fauna:

Sr. No
National Park
Notify year
Fauna
1
Valmiki National Park
1976
Bengal Tigers 

Demographics:

Population

10.41 Crores

Annual Growth

25.42 %

Population % in India

8.60 %

Population Density

1106/km²

Sex Ratio

918

Sex Ratio( Age 0 to 6 years)

935

Literacy rate

61.80 %


Religion

Percentage

Hinduism

82.7 %

Islam

16.9 %

Others

0.4%

 Transport:

(A) Airport:

  • Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport: Patna
  • Gaya Airport: Gaya, International Airport
  • Darbhanga Airport: Darbhanga

(B) Rail:

  • Major cities of Bihar are well connected to important cities of India such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata.
  • East Central Railway zone of Indian railway managed the railway connectivity of Bihar.

(C) Road:

  • National Highways such as 2, 19, 28, 31, 80, etc. are some main highways that pass through Bihar.
  •   N.H. 2 is the longest highway in Bihar.

(D) Inland waterways:

  • NW-1: Passes through Bihar and consists of a 450 KM distance of 1620 KM. NW-1 situated on the Ganga river and start from Prayagraj in Uttar Pradesh.

 Tourism:

(A) Religious Places:

Bihar state
Image source: Bihar tourism
  • Gurudwara Patna Sahib: Situated in Patna and the birthplace of the tenth Sikh Guru Govind Singh.
Bihar state
Image source: Bihar tourism
  • Pawapuri: Nirvana place of 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, Mahavira and situated Nalanda district of Bihar.
  • Rajgir: Place associated with Buddhism and Jainism and situated in Nalanda district of Bihar.
  • Vaishali: Birthplace of 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, Mahavira.

(B) Historical Places and Monuments:

  • Nalanda University: Nalanda University is an ancient university situated in the Nalanda district of Bihar in India and the UNESCO world heritage sites in India. It was the center of Excellence and Buddhist learning but Hinduism, Jainism also learned. 
  • Vikramshila University: Ancient University in India and was the center of Tantric Buddhism. 
  • Lauriya Nandangarh: famous for Ashoka pillar edicts.
  • Bodhgaya: Lord Buddha got Enlightenment under Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya and situated in Nalanda district of Bihar.
  • Tomb of Sher Shah Suri: built from red sandstone and famous for its Indo-Islamic architecture. Tomb situated in Sasaram district of Bihar.
  • Barabar Caves: the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India and rock sculptures of Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism are situated inside the rock caves.

Culture and Traditions:

  • Dance: Jat-Jatin , Jumari, Kajari, Bidesia, Jhijhia, Sohar- Khilouna, Fagua, Domkach
  • Fairs: Nag Panchami, Makar Sankranti fair, Sonepur cattle fair, etc. 
  • Festivals: Chhath Puja, Saraswati Puja, Deepavali, Dussehra, Holi, etc. 
Bihar state
                     Chhath Puja
Image source: Bihar tourism

Educational institute of Bihar:

  • Indian Institute of Technology(IIT): Patna
  • National Institute of Technology(NIT): Patna
  • All India Institute of Medical Science(AIIMS): Patna
  • Central University of South Bihar: Gaya
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical  Education and Research: Hajipur
  • National Institute of Fashion Technology: Patna
  • Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology: Hajipur

Famous Personalities of Bihar:

  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad: 1st President of India
  • Jayaprakash Narayan: Freedom Fighter and Social Activist
  • Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Writer
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad, B.C. Roy, Jayaprakash Narayan, and Bismillah Khan: Bharat Ratna Awardee
  • Sir Anerood Jugnauth: Prime Minister of Mauritius
  • Girija Prasad Koirala: Former Prime Minister of Nepal

Interesting Facts of Bihar State:

  • Bihar is the birthplace of Buddhism and Jainism.
  • Mundeshwari Devi temple at Kaimur district of Bihar is the oldest functioning temple in India.
  • Nalanda University was the oldest university in the world located in Bihar.
  • The concept of Non-violence originated from Bihar.
  • Patna has the world's longest Wi-Fi range(20 KM).
  • Vaishali is considered to be the first republic in the world





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