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Assam is the northeastern state of India and situated in the lap of the eastern Himalayas. 

Image source: teatrunk.in

Assam is the one state among seven sister states of India. Assam got statehood status on 26 January 1950.

Basic Assam state information:

  • Assam's capital: Dispur
  • Assam High Court: Guwahati
  • Largest City: Guwahati
  • Legislative assembly: Guwahati
  • Official Language: Assamese
  • Governor: Jagdish Mukhi
  • Chief Minister: Sarbananda Sonowal 
  • Chief Justice of the High Court: N. Ketiswar Singh
  • Legislative Assembly Seats: 126 (Unicameral)
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 14
  • Rajya Sabha Seats: 07
  • Number of Districts: 33
  • Area Wise Rank: 16th
  • Population Wise Rank: 15th

Geography:

  • Assam state covers 78438 square km area and 2.39% of India's geographical area.
  •  Assam locates between longitudinal: 89°42 ̍ E to 96° E  and latitude: 24°8 ̍ N to 28°2 ̍ N.
  • Assam state's physiography divided into 3 divisions: (a) the Barak valley (b) the Brahmaputra valley (c) the Karbi-Anglong and the north-Cachar hills.
  • Assam is situated in eastern Himalaya which is part of the Great Himalayas and known as " Assam Himalayas".
  • The Brahmaputra, the Barak , the Lohit, Dihang, Dibang, Dhansiri and Manas are main rivers flowing in Assam.
  • Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical semi-evergreen forest, tropical moist deciduous forest, and littoral and swamp forest are major forests found in Assam.
  • Alluvial soil Brahmaputra and Barak valley), piedmont (Himalaya foothills), loamy( Southern hills of Assam), and laterite soil( N.E. Hill districts) are mainly found in Assam.

Assam state boundaries:

Assam state shares its boundaries with 6 Indian states and 3 countries.
  • East: Manipur, Nagaland  
  • West: West Bengal
  • North: Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh
  • South: Mehhalaya, Mizoram, Tripura and Bangladesh
  • Assam and other northeastern states attach to the rest of India through the "Siliguri corridor". This corridor is also known as " Chicken Neck".

Assam State Symbols:

State symbols of Assam are below as 

Mammal

One Horned Rhinoceros

Bird

White-winged wood duck

Tree

Hollong

Flower

Foxtail orchid

Dance

Bihu

River

Brahmaputra

Drink

Assam tea

 Geographical Indication of Assam:

G. I. Tags

Muga silk

Joha rice

Tezpur Litchi

Assam (Orthodox) agriculture

Assam Karbi Anglong Ginger

Boka chaul

Kaji Nemu

 Districts:

Assam state is divided into 33 districts and also known as administrative districts.

Baksa, Barpeta, Biswanath, Bongaigaon, Cachar, Charaideo, Chirang, Darrang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Dima Hasao, Goalpara, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Hojai, Jorhat, Kamrup, Kamrup Metropolitian, Karbi- Anglong, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Majuli, Morigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, Sivasagar, Sonitpur, Southsalamara-Mankachar, Tinsukia, Udalguri, West Karbi Anglong

 Facts about Assam state districts:

Largest District (Area wise)

Karbi Anglong

Smallest district (Area wise)

South Salmara- Mankachar

Highest Population district

Nagaon

Lowest Population district

Majuli

Highest literacy rate district

Kamrup Metropolitan

Lowest literacy rate district

Dhubri

Highest sex ratio district

Baksa

Lowest sex ratio district

 Dima Hasao

 Economy:

(A) Agriculture:

  • Major food crops: Rice, Wheat, Maize, and Pulses.
  • Major Cash crops: Tea, Jute, Oilseed, and Tobacco. 
  • Assam state is the largest producer of tea in India (approximately 57 %).
  • 70 % population of Assam depends on agriculture and its allied sectors.
  • Rice is the main staple crop of Assam.

(B) Industries:

  • Assam is rich in natural resources, mainly crude oil and natural gases. 
  • Digboi is the first oil refinery (1873) in India and Asia. 
  • Assam contributes 25 % of petroleum products of India  and 15 % crude oil of India
  • Food processing industries, textile and sericulture industries, the herbal products industry are major industries in Assam.

Flora and Fauna:

  • Assam covers 34.2 % area by forest. 
  • Many types of animals are found mainly one-horned rhinoceros, tigers, Gangetic dolphins, wild buffalo, and elephants. 

  • Golden Langur and Pigmy Hoy are the endemic mammals found in Assam. 
Assam state
Golden Langur
  • Bamboo is mainly found in the forest of Assam.

Sr. No
National Park
Notify year
Fauna
1
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

1999
White-winged wood duck
2
Nameri National Park
1978
Asiatic elephants
3
Orang National Park
1999
One-horned Rhinoceros
4
Manas National Park
1990
Assam Roofed turtle, Bengal tigers, one-horned Rhinoceros 
5
Kaziranga National Park
1974
Bengal Tigers, One-horned Rhinoceros

Demography of Assam:

According to the census 2011, Assam state population is:

Population

3.12 crores

Annual growth

17.07 %

Population %  in India

2.58 %

Population density

398

Sex ratio

958

Sex ratio ( age 0 to 6 Years)

962

Literacy Rate

72.19 %


Religion

Percentage

Hindu

61.47 %

Muslim

34.22 %

Christian

3.74 %

Buddhism

0.18 %

others

0.40 %

 Transport:

(A) Airport:

  • Lokpriya Gopinath Borodoli International Airport: Guwahati
  • Jorhat airport: Jorhat
  • Dibrugarh airport: Dibrugarh
  • Tezpur: Tezpur

(B) Railways:

  • Rail in Assam state operates by North Frontier Railways and its headquarters situated in Maligaon (Guwahati).
  • Dibrugarh, Guwahati, and Lumding are major stations in Assam.

(C)  Road: 

  • National Highways such as N.H.- 2, 6, 15, 17, 27 E-W, 226 are some important national highways.
  • Total 15 National Highways pass through the state.

(D) Waterways:

  • National Waterways (NW-2, 16, 6, 18, 73, 30, 31, 62, 95) are passes through Assam.

Tourism:

Assam state is famous for its wildlife sanctuary, temples, and cultural programs.

(A) Religious Places:

  • Kamakhya Devi temple: The temple situated in Guwahati and devoted to the goddess Kamakhya.
  • Hajo: A religious place for Hindu, Muslim, and Buddhist.
  • Barpeta: The place is known for " Satranagri" and the center of Vaishnavite philosophy or culture.

(B) Natural Places:

  • Majuli Island: The largest river island in the world situated on the Brahmaputra river.
  • Umananda Island: the smallest river island in the world.
  • National Parks and wildlife sanctuary: There are five national parks present in Assam which consist of the two-thirds population of one-horned rhinoceroses and the highest density of tigers in the world.
  • Tea gardens: In Assam, tea gardens tourism also attracts tourists all over the world and gives a picturesque view of natural beauty. 

Culture and Traditions:

(A) Dance: Bihu, Bagurumba, Bhortal, and Jhumair.
Assam state
Bihu Dance

(B) Music: Carnatic Odissi Hindustani and Folk Borgeet.
(C) Festivals: Bihu, Baishagu, Rajini Garba, Harni Garba, Jonbell Mela, Me-Dum-Me-Phi, Ambubachi Mela, Deepavali, and Holi.

Education institute in Assam:

  • Indian Institute of Technology(IIT): Guwahati
  • National Institute of Technology (NIT): Silchar
  • Indian Institute of Information Technology(IIIT): Guwahati
  • Assam Agriculture University: Jorhat
  •  Guwahati medical college: Guwahati

Interesting facts about Assam:

  • Majuli: The largest river island in the world on the Brahmaputra river.
  • Umananda: the smallest river island in the world.
  • Maa Kamakhya temple: the Largest shakti peeth in India.
  • Brahmaputra: the widest river of India and the widest part of the river in Assam.
  • Sualkuchi: the world's largest weaving village mainly from Silk and it is popularly known as Manchester of Assam.
  • Ranghar (Sibsagar): the largest amphitheater of Asia.
  • Assam is the largest tea-growing state in the world.
  • Jorhat in Assam is known as the " Tea Capital of India".
  • Ahom Dynasty was the longest ruling dynasty in India and ruled in Assam.
  •  Guwahati is known as the " Gateway of India". 
  • Bhupen Hazarika Setu consists of a total length of 9.5 Km bridge in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh on Lohit River which is the longest bridge in India.




























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