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Jharkhand is the eastern state of India and carved out from Bihar on 15 November 2000 under Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000. Jharkhand means "land of forest or Bush".

Basic Information about Jharkhand:

  • Jharkhand's capital: Ranchi
  • Jharkhand High Court: Ranchi
  • Largest City: Jamshedpur
  • Legislative assembly: Ranchi
  • Official Language: Hindi 
  • Governor: Draupadi Murmu
  • Chief Minister: Hemant Soren
  • Chief Justice of the High Court: Dr. Ravi Rajan
  • Legislative Assembly Seats: 81 (Unicameral)
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 14
  • Rajya Sabha Seats: 06
  • Number of Districts: 24
  • Area Wise Rank: 15th
  • Population Wise Rank: 14th

Geography:

  • Jharkhand covers 79714 Sq. km areas which comprise 7.80% geographical areas of India. 
  • Jharkhand is located between 23°45’ N latitude and 85°30’ E longitude. 
  • Most of the parts of Jharkhand state are situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau
  • The Highest peak is situated in Parasnath hill and has 1350 meters in height. 
  • Damodar, Subarnarekha, North Koel, and South Koel are important rivers of Jharkhand. 
  • Many mountains and hill range situated in the state such as Parasnath hill ranges, Rajmahal Hills and Tagore hill, etc. 
  •  Tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry deciduous forests are mainly found in Jharkhand. 29.1% of the state is covered by forest.
  •  Different types of soil found in Jharkhand such as red soil mainly (Damodar valley and Rajmahal hills), Black soil(Rajmahal areas), and Sandy soil( Hazaribagh), etc.  

Boundaries of Jharkhand:

 Jharkhand shares its borders with five states.

State Symbol:

State Symbols

Name

Mammal

Indian Elephant

Bird

Koel

Flower

Palash

Tree

Sal

Geographical Indications of Jharkhand:

Geographical Indications

Sohrai- Kohvar art

Districts:

Jharkhand consists of 24 districts and divided into 5 administrative divisions:

Administrative Divisions

Districts

Palamu

Garhwa, Latehar, Palamu

North Chotanagpur

Bokaro, Chatra, Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribag, Koderma, Ramgarh

South Chotanagpur

Gumla, Khunti, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Simdega

Kolhan

East Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan, West Singhbhum

Santhal Pargana

Deoghar, Dumka, Godda, Jamtara, Pakur, Sahebganj

 Facts about Jharkhand districts:

Largest District (Area Wise)

Paschimi Singhbhum

Smallest District (Area Wise)

Ramgarh

Most Populous  district

Ranchi

Lowest Populous district

Lohardaga

Highest Sex-ratio district

Paschimi Singhbhum

Lowest Sex ratio district

Dhanbad

Highest Literacy rate district

Ranchi

Lowest Literacy rate district

Pakur

 Economy:

Jharkhand is famous for its mineral wealth in India. Many industries are based on mineral ores in Jharkhand such as Tata Steel etc. Agriculture is also to develop the economy of the state.

(A) Minerals: 

Jharkhand State

  • 1st Position in Mineral ores: Iron ore, Copper ore, Mica, Asbestos, Uranium, and Kainite
  • Other Important ores: Coal, limestone, Bauxite, Manganese, Chromite, and Silver, etc. 

(B) Agriculture:

  • Main crops: Rice, Maize, Wheat, and Chickpea
  • Oilseeds: Mustard, Til, Groundnut, and Niger.

(C) Industries: 

There are many minerals based industries in Jharkhand. Tata Steel plant, NTPC, Bokaro steel plant, Lafarge cement and Central Coalfields limited are some famous industries in Jharkhand.

Flora and Fauna:

Jharkhand has 29.61% geographical areas of the state covered by the forest. Tropical dry deciduous forest is mainly found in Jharkhand.

National Park

Betla National Park


 Demographics: 

According to census 2011, the population of Jharkhand is 

Population

3.29 crores

Annual Growth

22.4%

Population % in India

5.50%

Population density

414/Sq. km

Sex Ratio

949

Sex Ratio(Age0-6 Years)

938

Literacy Rate

67.6%

 

Religion

Percentage

Hinduism

67.83%

Islam

14.53%

Sarnaism

12.52%

Christianity

4.3%

Sikh

0.22%

Others

0.61%

Transport:

(A) Airport:

  • Birsa Munda Airport at Ranchi is the main airport of Jharkhand.
  • Dumka airport, Jamshedpur airport, and Dhanbad airport are some other airports in Jharkhand.

(B) Roads:

Jharkhand State

  • Major cities of Jharkhand such as Ranchi, Jamshedpur, and Bokaro, etc. are connected through the National and state highways.
  • Some main National highways (N.H.-6, 22, 31, 43,78, 100, and 133) pass through the state.

(C) Railways:

  • Main cities of the state connect through railway networks. Ranchi, Jamshedpur, and Dhanbad are some major stations in the state. 
  • Railway stations in Jharkhand come under the three railway zones(Eastern Railway Zone, East Central Railway Zone, and South Eastern Railway Zone). 

Tourism:

(A) Religious Places:

  • Baidyanath Jyotirlinga temple: It is one of twelve Jyotirlinga of God Shiva and situated at Deoghar district of Jharkhand state.
Jharkhand State
Baidyanath Temple 

  • Parasnath Hill: The hill is a sacred site for the Jain community and it is known as " Sammed Sikhar". 20 out of 24  Jain Tirthankaras got nirvana on Parasnath hills.
  • Maa Chhinnamasta temple: A Hindu pilgrimage center situated at Rajrappa town in Ramgarh district of Jharkhand.
  • Pahari Mandir: The temple situated at the hilltop in Ranchi and dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • Jagannath Temple: A temple situated at a small hillock in Ranchi of Jharkhand and dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

(B) Hill Stations and Natural destinations:

  • Rajrappa: It is famous for its waterfall and Maa Chhinnamasta Temple
  • Netarhat: A hill station located in the Latehar district of Jharkhand. It is popularly known as " Queen of Chotanagpur".
  • Sati Hills: The hills are mainly famous for their beautiful cave paintings and located in the Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand.
  • Lodh waterfall or Budha waterfall: The highest waterfall of state and situated on Burha river in Latehar district of state.
  • Dassam Waterfall: The waterfall situated in the Kanchi river in the Ranchi district of Jharkhand.
  • Betla National Park and Tiger reserves are famous wildlife destinations in the state.

(C) Historical Monuments and Sites:

  • Megalith Prehistoric monument at Hazaribagh district of state.
  • Palamu forts

Culture and Traditions:

  • Dance: Chhau, Santhali, Fagua, Domkach , Jhumir, Mundari and Kurukh
  • Fairs: Kunda Mela, Kolhaiya Mela, Lawalong Mela, Bhadli Mela and Chatra Mela.
  • Festivals: Sarhul, Karma, Tusu Parab, Rohin, Deepavali, Holi and Mahashivratri.

Educational institute of Jharkhand:

  • Indian Institute of Technology(IIT): Dhanbad
  • National Institute of Technology(NIT): Jamshedpur
  • Indian Institute of Management(IIM): Ranchi
  • Indian Institute of Information Technology: Ranchi
  • All India Institute of Medical Science(AIIMS): Deoghar
  • Rajendra Institute of Medical Science(RIMS): Ranchi
  • Central University of Jharkhand: Ranchi

Famous Personalities of Jharkhand:

  • Birsa Munda: Freedom fighter and folk hero
Jharkhand State
Birsa Munda

  • Albert Ekka: Param Vir Chakra awardee
  • Randhir Prasad Verma: Ashoka Chakra awardee
  • Biswajit Roy Chowdhury: Hindustani Classical musician
  • Mahendra Singh Dhoni: Cricketer
  • Premlata Aggarwal: Oldest Indian woman climber on Mount Everest 

Interesting facts about Jharkhand:

  • Jamshedpur is the first planned industrial city in India and established by Jamshedji Tata in 1907.
  • Jamshedpur is the only city in India that has no municipal corporation and is run by Tatas.
  • Maithon Dam on the Barakar river is the only dam in Asia that has an underground Power station.
  • Jharkhand accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India.
  • Dhanbad is the coal capital of India.
  • Betla National Park is the first tiger reserve in India under Project Tiger.






















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