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Gujarat is the western coastal state which has the largest coastline area in India. Gujarat is a vibrant cultural state. Gujarat got statehood status on 01 May 1960 after the Bombay reorganization act 1960.

Basic Gujarat State Information:

  • Gujarat Capital: Gandhinagar
  • Gujarat High Court: Ahmedabad
  • Gujarat Legislative Assembly: Gandhinagar
  • Largest City: Ahmedabad
  • Official Language: Gujarati
  • Chief Minister: Sh. Vijay Rupani (BJP)
  • Governor: Sh. Acharya Dev Vrat
  • Chief Justice of the High Court: Sh. Vikram Nath
  • Legislative Assembly Seat: 182 (Unicameral)
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 26
  • Rajya Sabha Seats: 11
  • Number of Districts: 33
  • Areawise Rank: 5th
  • Population wise Rank: 9th
  • Population Density: 308/km2

Geography:

  • Gujarat covers the 196030 Sq.km areas. It bounded by the Arabian Sea and covers a 1600 km area. 
  • Gujarat state has the largest coastline area in India. 
  • Vindhyan mountain, Satpura range, Aravali range, and the Western Ghats are mountain ranges situated in Gujarat. 
  • Small hills spread all around in Gujarat such as Girnar, Chottila, and Palitana. Satpura is the only a hill station in Gujarat.
  • Mount Girnar is the highest peak of Gujarat. 
  • Some important rivers flowing in this peninsular part. Sabarmati, Tapi, and Narmada are the main rivers. 
  • These rivers have important characteristics that flow from east to west. but most of the Indian rivers flow from West to East. Sabarmati is the largest river in Gujarat. 
  • Different types of forest found in Gujarat such as dry deciduous forests (Kathiarbar-Gir in the eastern part), moist deciduous forests of the Western Ghats (southeastern part),  and thorn scrub forests ( Kathiawar peninsula and upland area of Kutch).
  •  Rann of Kutch is a salty marshy area in Gujarat.

Boundaries of Gujarat:

Gujarat state boundary attaches with 3 states, 1 Union territory, and an international border with Pakistan.
  • East: Madhya Pradesh   West: the Arabian sea and Pakistan
  • Northeast: Rajasthan   Southeast: Dadar & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu
  • South: Maharashtra

State Symbols:

State symbols of Gujarat are:

State Symbols

Name

Mammal

Asiatic Lion

Bird

Greater Flamingo

Flower

Marigold

Tree

Banyan

Dance

Garba


Geographical Indications of Gujarat: 

Sr.No.
 Goods
1
Sankheda furniture
Handicraft
2
Agates of Cambay
Handicraft
3
Kutch Embroidery
Handicraft
4
Tangaliya Shawl
Handicraft
5
Gir Kesar Mango
Agriculture
6
Jamnagari Bandhani
Handicraft
7
Patan Patola
Handicraft
8
Sankheda furniture(logo)
Handicraft
9
Agates of Cambay(Logo)
Handicraft
10
Kutch Embroidery(logo)
Handicraft
11
Surat Zari Craft
Handicraft
12
Kachchh Shawls
Handicraft



Districts:

Gujarat consists of 33 districts and divided into four regions: 

Regions

Districts

North Gujarat

Gandhinagar, Aravali, Patan, Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha

South Gujarat

Surat, Bharuch, Dang, Navsari, Tapi, Valsad, Narmada

Central Gujarat

Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Anand, Chhota Udaipur, Dahod, Kheda, Mahisagar, Panchmahal

Saurashtra-Kutch

Rajkot, Junagadh, Jamnagar, Porbandar, Bhavnagar, Amerli, Botad, Gir-Somnath, Devbhoomi Dwarka, Morbi, Surendranagar, Kachchh

Facts about Gujarat districts :

Largest district(Areawise)

Kutch

Smallest district(Areawise

Dang

Largest district(Population)

Ahmedabad

Smallest district(population)

Kutch

Highest literacy rate district

Surat

Lowest literacy rate district

Dohad

Highest sex ratio district

Tapi

Lowest sex ratio district

Surat


Economy:

Gujarat state has an agriculture-based economy but industries have a great contribution to the economic growth of Gujarat.

(A) Agriculture: 

  • Main crops: Wheat, Rice, Bajara
  • Cash Crops: Cotton, Tobacco, Groundnut, and Sugarcane
  • First Position in India: Cotton, Groundnut, Castor seeds, Fennel, Cumin, Date palm. 
  • Vegetables and fruits production also has a great contribution to Gujarat's economy. 
  • Castor, Groundnut, and Mustard are the main oilseeds crops of Gujarat. 
  • Gujarat has the highest productivity in onion and potato in India. 
  • Gujarat has the first position in the onion dehydration industry especially at Mahuva in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat. 
  • Animal husbandry through cooperative society helped to their achievement. AMUL is the largest Asia dairy farm and cooperative society which helped India to make self-sufficient in milk through the white revolution.
  • Many Indigenous breeds of animals are famous all over the world such as Gir and Kankarej( breeds of Cow) and, Jaffarabadi and Bunni (breeds of Buffalo). 

(B) Industries: 

  • Gujarat is an industrial friendly state. A large number of industries are situated in Gujarat. 
  • Gujarat covers more than 1600 km area by the coast which helped Gujarat to develop industries. 
  • Ahmedabad(textile & Pharma industries), Surat (Diamond cutting and Polishing), Bhavnagar(Onion dehydration industries & Shipyard breaking), Rajkot(tools making industries), and Jamnagar( oil refinery) are the main industrial cities. 

(C) Minerals: 

  • Gujarat also has some areas in a mineral deposition. Gypsum, Feldspar, Calcite, limestone, and bauxite, etc are mainly found in Gujarat. 
  • Gujarat is the largest producer of Soda ash and provides 78% national requirement of salt. 
  • Ankleshwar, Kalol, and Khambat are famous for oil and natural gas production.

Flora and Fauna:

Gujarat covers 09.07% forest area and the Dang district of Gujarat has the largest forest area. Different animal species are found in the forest of Gujarat such as the Asiatic lion,  and wild ass donkey, etc. Four national parks situated in Gujarat. 
Gujarat State
Asiatic Lions

Sr No
National Park
Notify year
Fauna
1
Black Buck National Park
1976
Black Buck
2
Gir National Park
1975
Asiatic lion
 Gir National Park  in Gujarat is only Home for Asiatic Lion in India and World
3
Marine National Park
1980
Coral reefs
4
Vansda National Park
1979
Leopards

Demographics:

According to Census 2011, the population of Gujarat is :


Population

6.04Crore

Annual Growth (%)

19.28%

Population % in India

4.99%

Population Density 

308 per Sq. Km

Sex Ratio

18

Sex Ratio(between age 0 to 6 Years)

883

Literacy Rate

78.03%


Religion

Percentage

Hinduism

88.57%

Muslim

9.67%

Jain

0.96%

Christianity

0.52%

Others

0.28%



Transport:

(A) Air

International airport:
Gujarat State

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
  • Surat International Airport
Domestic Airport:
  • Bhavnagar airport
  • Jamnagar airport
  • Bhuj airport
  • Amerli airport
  • Rajkot airport
  • Vadodara airport
  • Kandla airport
  • Keshod airport
  • Porbandar  airport
Military base airports:
  • Jamnagar airport
  • Bhuj airport
  • Naliya airport

(B) Rail:

  •  Gujarat state is well connected through the main cities of India. Trains in Gujarat operate by the Western Railway zone of the Indian railway. 
  • Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, and Surat, etc. are busy railway stations in Gujarat. 
  • Vadodara Railway station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat.

(C) Road:

  • Gujarat state transport connects their major cities and other parts of neighboring states through National highways. Delhi-Mumbai NH-10 passes through the Gujarat state. 
  • Government bus services operated by the Gujarat state roadways transport corporation (GSRTC). 
  • GSRTC bus services are the main source of travelling to cities and villages in Gujarat and other states.

(D) Sea:

Gujarat State


  • Gujarat state is bounded by the Arabian sea and has the largest coastline in India. 
  • Kandla Port is the main port of Gujarat and is one of twelve major ports in India. 
  • Some other ports are Pipavav Port (first private port in India), Port of Veraval, and Porbander. 
  • Mundra Port is the largest private port of India which situated in the Kutch district of Gujarat. 
  • This port operated by the Adani group.

Tourism:

Gujarat is a tourism-friendly state. Many historical places, religious places are situated in Gujarat

(A) Religious Places:

Gujarat State
Somnath Temple

  • Somnath temple: first jyotirlinga in twelve Jyotirlinga in India. It situated onshore of the Arabian Sea in the Gir-Somnath district of Gujarat. 
  • Dwarkadheesh temple: The temple situated in Devbhoomi Dwarkadheesh district of Gujarat and dedicated to Lord Krishna.
  • Ambaji Mata temple: The temple is a Shaktipeeth and dedicated to the goddess Durga. It situated in the Banaskantha district of Gujarat.
  • Umiya Mataji temple: The temple situated at Unjha taluka in the Mehsana district of Gujarat. Umiya Mata is the Kuldevi of Patidars of Gujarat.
  • Salangpur Hanumanji temple: The Lord Hanumanji temple situated in the Botad district of Gujarat.
  • Palitana Jain temple: The Jain temples situated in Shatrunjaya mount in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat. These Jain temples are famous for their architecture and have more than 900 temples on top of the hill.
  • Girnar Hills: Girnar hill is a sacred place for both Hindu and Jain. Many Hindu and Jain temples situated on the hill. Famous Bhavnath temple situated at bottom of Girnar hill and huge pilgrimages came across during the Shivratri festival. Girnar hill situated in the Junagadh district of Gujarat.
  • Sun Temple Modhera: The temple dedicated to the god Sun and located at Modhera village of Mehsana district of Gujarat.
Gujarat State
Sun temple
  • Nishkalank Mahadev temple: The temple situated onshore of the Arabian Sea in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat. The temple sinks in seawater two times in a day due to high tide and appears again due to low tide in the Arabian Sea.
  • Some other important temples in Gujarat are Dakorji temple, Chotila and Mahudi temple, etc. 
  • The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque and Jama Masjid in Ahmedabad are sacred places to Gujarati Muslim communities.

(B) Historical Monuments and Sites:

  • Dholavira: The Indus valley civilization sites
  • Lothal: The Indus valley civilization sites
  • Ahmedabad City: Ahmedabad is the first city of India which became the UNSECO heritage site in 2017. Old heritage city is famous for its domestic wooden architecture with distinctive “Havelis” (Neighbourhood), “Pols” (gated residential main streets), and “Khadkis” (inner contract to Pols) which is the main constitutes of the architecture. 
  • Champaner Pavagadh Archaeological Park: It is a UNESCO world heritage site that is situated in the Panchmahal district, Gujarat, India.  It includes a prehistoric site (chalcolithic site), a hill fortress of early Hindu capital, and remains of the 16th century capital of the state of Gujarat''. 
  • Rani Ki Vav: Rani-Ki-Vav is a UNESCO world heritage site under the cultural category since 2014 which was situated on the bank of Sarasvati River at Patan district in Gujarat, India. It is a temple-cum-water storage system that is designed as an inverted temple under the earth’s surface to show the sanctity of water with more than 500 principle sculptures and thousands of minor ones. 
  • Laxmi Vilas Palace: It is a unique fusion of Hindu, Mughal, and Gothic architectural styles. This is the largest private dwelling in the world and situated in the Vadodara district of Gujarat.
  • Mahabat Maqbara: located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat and fusion of Gothic and Indo-Islamic architecture.
  • Ashok edicts & Buddhist Caves: they are located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat.
  • Khambhalida caves: These Buddhist caves belong to the 3rd to 4th centuries known as " Rajkot caves" and situated in the Rajkot district of Gujarat.
  • Vallabhi University: The ancient university situated in Gujarat and this ancient university was a competitor to the Nalanda University in ancient India.

(C) Other tourist destinations:

  • Kirti Mandir: it is the birthplace of Mahatama Gandhi and located in the Porbandar district of Gujarat. It associates with the life journey of Mahatama Gandhi and his wife Kasturba Gandhi.
  • Statue of Unity: A Sadar Vallabhbhai Patel's statue Situated at Narmada valley in the Narmada district of Gujarat 
  • Sabarmati Ashram: located in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat and related to the freedom day struggle of  Mahatama Gandhi.
  • Rann of Kutch: It is famous for Rann Utsav and popular known as India "Wild West"
  • Adalaj Stepwell: It is known as "Adalaj ni Vav " and situated in the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat.
  • Jambhuvan Cave: It situated at Ranavav in the Porbandar district of Gujarat.
  • Satpura: Only hill station of Gujarat.

Culture and traditions:

  • Dance: Garba is the state dance and celebrated during the Navratri festival.
  • Music: Sugam Sangeet is known as Gujarati folk music.
  • Festivals: Diwali, Holi, Makar Sankranti(famous kite festival his time) and Navratri, etc

Educational Institutues:

  • Indian Institute of Technology(IIT): Gandhinagar
  • Indian Institute of Management(IIM): Ahmedabad
  • National Institute of  Design: Ahmedabad
  • National Institute of Technology(NIT): Surat
  • AMC MET medical college: Ahmedabad
  • Baroda Medical College: Vadodara
  • Central University of Gujarat: Gandhinagar
  • Maharaja Sayajirao University: Vadodara
  • Gujarat University: Ahmedabad

Research Organisations:

  • Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute: Bhavnagar
  • Institute of Plasma Research: Gandhinagar
  • Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association: Ahmedabad
  • Physical Research Laboratory: Ahmedabad

Important Personalities of Gujarat:

  • Mahatma Gandhi: Father of Nation and belonged to the Porbander district of Gujarat.
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel: Iron man of India and founding father of India.
  • Morarji Desai: 4thIndian Prime Minister of India.
  • Vikram Sarabhai: Father of Indian Space Programme and founder of ISRO.
  • Narendra Modi: Current Prime minister of India.
  • Jamsetji Tata: Industrialist and founder of Tata Group.
  • Dhirubhai Ambani: Industrialist and belonged to the Chorvad area of Gujarat and founder of Reliance Industries.
  • Azim Premji: Chairman of Wipro Ltd.

Interesting  Facts about Gujarat:

  • Lothal considered the first seaport in the world.
  • Gujarat is known as the " Jewel of the West".
  • Asiatic lions are found only in Gir National Park of Gujarat in the world.
  • Alang in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat is the largest ship-breaking yard in the world.
  • The highest number of vegetarians in Gujarat in India.
  • Jamnagar Oil refinery is the world's largest refining.
  • Mundra seaport is the largest private seaport in India.
  • Kutch is the largest district in India.
  • Gujarat is considered as petrochemical capital of India because it produces 50% of total petrochemical production.
  • The statue of Unity Gujarat is the world's tallest statue.
  • The first state in India set up a separate department for climate change.
  • The first marine wildlife sanctuary and first Marine national park developed in Gujarat in India.
  • One-third of diamonds in the world polish in Surat and Surat is the richest city in India.
  • The largest number of airports situated in Gujarat.
  • The Rann of Kachchh is the largest salt desert in the world.
  • Gandhinagar is the cleanest city in Asia.
  • Indroda Dinosaur and Fossil Park is the first fossil Park in India, located at Balasinor, Gandhinagar in Gujarat.
  • Gujarat has the largest optical fiber network in India and Asia-Pacific.
  • Arambada lake in Gujarat is the first jellyfish lake in India.
  • Gujarat is the safest state for women.
  • First position in Gas based thermal electricity



































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