In ancient times, **India **was advanced in terms of **science and technology**. Many discoveries and inventions were made in the field of mathematics, medicine, and metallurgy, etc. in ancient India.

**Iron Pillar of Delhi **

**(1)** The **Iron pillar of Delhi** which is a sample of the fine art of ancient Indian artists is still left from rust.

**(2)** The pillar was **built by Chandragupta II **(375-415 CE) and situated in the Qutub complex in Delhi, India.

**(3)** This is the **first iron pillar in the world** and is well known for its rust-resistance composition so that it is called **“testimony to the high level of skill achieved by the ancient Indian blacksmiths in the extraction and processing of Iron ''. **

**(4)** The corrosion resistance of iron pillar is mainly due to **a layer of crystalline iron(III) hydrogen phosphate hydrate forming on high phosphorus content iron** and protecting it from external environments.

### Wootz steel

**(1)** **The wootz steel **invented in the **South region of Ancient India. **

**(2)** This world-famous steel formed through** heating of black magnetite ore in a sealed clay crucible **and **flowing of carbon crystal which embeds in iron.**

**(3)** The **Wootz steel **widely exported to Arabs(especially in the Middle East) and ancient Europe. Wootz steel is **a type of crucible steel**. This laid foundation of world-famed **Damascus blades.**

(4) Microscopic analysis of **Wootz steel** explains that it contains **carbon and a band of clustered Fe3C particles.**

(5) **Wootz steel **is an anglicized version of the **Ukku(Kannada), Urukku(Tamil),** and **Hukku( Telugu). **

(6) Renowned scientist Michael Faraday spent four years of his life studying the properties of Wootz steel.

(7) **Sword of Tipu Sultan **was** made from wootz steel** and used against British wars.

### Concept of Atom

**(1) Kanada (Kashyapa)** was an ancient Indian scientist and explained about atoms known as **“ Anu”.** He speculated that** the existence of Anu**, similar to an atom.

**(2)** He described that **Anu **can have** two states:** one is **absolute rest** and the other is a** state of motion.**

### Charaka Samhita

**(1) Charaka **authored the **Charaka Samhita.** He described the Indian traditional medicine system in his book. This traditional system is known as** “Ayurveda”**.

**(2)** He was the **first physician **to** describe the concept of digestion, metabolism, and immunity**. He explained herbal medicine is used to cure many diseases.

### Binary Number

**(1) Pingala invented the binary number system** in** the 3 ^{rd} or the 2^{nd} century **in ancient India.

**(2) **In his book **“Chandahsastra”,** He used **Laghu(light)** and **Guru(Heavy) syllables** that represent **“0”** and **“1” **respectively in the modern binary system.

**(3)** In the Pingala binary number system, it started at 1 but in the modern binary system start from 0.

**(4)** It is **used in mathematics and digital electronics.**

### Concept of Zero

**(1)** **Zero number** was **first time symbolized **as a **dot** at **Bakhshali script** in **224-383 AD** in Bakhshali village of Pakistan.

**(2) Pingala** (3^{rd} or 2^{nd} century) used **“0” syllables** in his binary number system in Chandahastra's book. It is known as **“Sunya”** in Sanskrit.

**(3)** **Aryabhata **was the **first **who used** zero in the decimal number system** and gave the **“Concept of Zero”.**

**(4)** **Brhamagupta**(598 AD-688AD) was **explained rules about uses of zero** and **developed a symbol of zero **in his book **Brahma-sphuta Siddhanta.**

### Ten digit numeral system

**(1) **This number system was developed by different civilizations but the Present-day ten-digit numeral system is taken from the Ancient Indian number system. Because every digit has different symbols.

**(2)** **Ten digits numeral system **used in the **Bakhshali manuscript in 224 AD.**

**(3) **This number system accepted by Persia and spread into the middle east and Europe so that it is known as **“Indian-Arab”** or **“ Hindu-Arab”** numerals.

### Arithmetic and Algebra

Many mathematicians in ancient India developed many concepts and formulas in arithmetic and algebra, these used modern-day mathematics.

**(1)** **Aryabhata** gave rules about algebra in his book **“Aryabhatiya”. **

**(2)** **Brhmagupta** gave the solution for the general quadratic equation for both positive and negative roots, solution of linear Diophantine equation, and gave Pythagorean triads.

**(3) Bhaskara II(1114-1185 AD**) solved the problem dealing with a determinate and indeterminate linear and a quadratic equation in **“ Siddhanta Shiromani”.**

### Chakravala Method

**(1) Chakravala method** is a **cyclic algorithm** to solve intermediate quadratic equations. **Bhaskara II **described this method.

**(2) Chakravala **word means **Chakra(Wheel) **in Sanskrit and represents the cyclic nature of the algorithm.

### Negative Numbers

**Negative numbers **were **first time recognized by the Chinese** but **rules for its use** were given by **ancient Indian Mathematicians.** They considered** negative numbers **as a **“debt”** and **positive numbers** as **“Fortune”.**

### Concept of Infinity

**(1) **The concept of Infinity is very old in ancient India. It is known as **“Ananta”** which means endless or infinity.

**(2)** In **Shukla Yajurveda** explains infinity: “ Infinity is born from infinity and when we take infinity out of infinity, only infinity remains".

**(3) Bhaskara II **explained that if one is divided by zero then we get infinite numbers.

### Value of Pi

**(1) Baudhayana **was the **first time** to give the idea of Pi in his book “ Baudhayana Sulbasutra” in the 8^{th }century BC. but did not correctly explain its value.

**(2) Aryabhata**(5^{th} Century AD) gave a value of Pi in four decimal places i.e.** Ï€ = 3.1416.**

### Uses of Trigonometry

**(1) **Trigonometry started many civilizations such as Greeks, Babylonians, and Egyptian but Indian trigonometry is the base of modern trigonometry.

**(2) ** **Aryabhata**, an Indian mathematician explained **categorical definitions** (Trigonometry functions and table from 0° to 90° into four decimal places).

**(3) Varahmihira** made a table of Sine, Cosine up to four decimal places in **“Surya Siddhanta”** and uses of Sine, Cosine, Inverse Sine, Tangents, and Secants.

### Basis of Calculus

**(1)** Gottfried Leibniz(17^{th} Centuries) was known **father of Calculus** but** Bhaskara II **Indian mathematician gave preliminary **concepts of Infinitesimal calculus, Differential calculus, **and **Integral calculus** in **“ Siddhanta Shiromani”** in the **12 ^{th} century.**

### Mensuration

Indian from ancient times was very well known about measures and weights.

**(1) ** **Indus valley civilization **used bricks a perfect **dimensions proportion** i.e. **4:2:1** and standardized weight system.

**(2) Mohenjodaro ruler **in which **one unit is equal to 1.32 inches** and each unit divided into 10 equal parts.

**(3)** During the Vedic period, different terms used for measurement units such as **Kala Pramana(a measurement of Time), Mana(a measurement of Capacity),** and **Tula mana( Measurement of weight).**

### Fibonacci Numbers

A sequence of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1. This sequence was first described by **Virahanka (700 CE) **and Gopala **(1135 AD).**

### Cataract Surgery

Indians were familiar with cataract surgery from ancient times.

**(1) Sushruta **(6^{th} Century BC) was known as the **“Father of Indian Surgery”.**** **

**(2)** He was the **first eye surgeon** who performed cataract surgery. **Jabamukhi Salaka** was **a curved needle tool** that used to loosen the lens and remove the cataract from it.

**(3)** He authored the **“Sushruta Samahita” **book and gave details about cataract surgery.

### Heliocentric Theory of Sun

**(1) Aryabhata's** first-time detail explained that Planets rotates in his own axis and revolves around the sun, and moon revolving around the earth in his book** “Surya Siddhanta”**.

**(2)** He gave an idea about the** length of the Sideral year**( length of earth’s revolution around the sun) and that is **365.256 days**.

Nice,informative article

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