Punjab State
Golden Temple 

Punjab is the north-western state of India. Punjab is famous for its granary’s Production, great freedom fighters, and the birthplace of Sikhism religion.

Basic information about Punjab:

1. Capital of Punjab:  Chandigarh
2. Official language: Punjabi (Gurumukhi Scripts)
3. Chief Minister of Punjab: Captain Amarinder Singh
4. Governor of Punjab: V P Singh Badnore
5. Chief Justice of the High Court: Sh. Ravishankar Jha
6. High Court of Punjab: Punjab and Haryana High Court (Chandigarh)
7. Legislative assembly of Punjab: Vidhan Sabha(Chandigarh)
8. Members of Legislative Assembly: 117
9. Lok Sabha Seats: 13
10. Rajya Sabha Seats: 07


(A) In ancient times, the “Panca nada” region mentioned in Mahabharata as a Sanskrit word which means five rivers(Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum, Chenab) flow.
(B) In Persian, this region called “ Panjab” which is a combination of two words “Panj”(Five) and “Ab” (water) which means a region where are five rivers flowing.

Punjab state formation:

Punjab State
Maharaja Ranjit singh 
(A) During British time, it was known as “ Punjab Province” of British India.
(B) After India's Partition in 1947, Punjab province divided into two parts, one was eastern Punjab situated in Present India and other was Western Punjab situated in Present  Pakistan.
(C) In 1956, eight Princely states under PEPSU(Patiala and the East Punjab states union) merged into Punjab.
(D) Present Punjab state formation occurred after carved out Haryana and Himachal Pradesh on a linguistic basis from Punjab on 1 November 1966 on the recommendation of Punjab Boundary Commission 1966(Head of Commission: Fazal Ali). The capital of Punjab shifted from Shimla to Chandigarh on 1 November 1966.


Punjab State

(1) Punjab consists of fertile alluvial soil plain in most parts of it. These plains are famous for their agricultural production with a canal irrigation system.
(2) In the northeast part of Punjab situated in foothills of Shiwalik Hills and Southwest, parts are Semi-arid.
(3) On the basis of the drainage system, Punjab divided into three parts Majha region(Between Ravi and Beas river), the Doab region(between Beas and Sutlej river), and the Malwa region(below Sutlej river).
(4) Punjab covers 50362 sq. Km area(1.53% of total India’s geographical areas) and 19th largest state in India.
(5) Only two rivers Beas and Sutlej flow in the territory of Punjab. Sutlej river flows in three districts of Punjab such as Pathankot, Gurdaspur, and Amritsar. Beas river flows in six districts such as Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, Kapurthala, and Tarantaran.

Boundaries of Punjab State:

From ancient times, Punjab was the entry point of India for Afghans, Persian, and Greeks, etc. Punjab shares its boundaries with 3 states, 1 union territory, and 1 international boundary with Pakistan.

East: Chandigarh West: Pakistan

North: Jammu &Kashmir Northeast: Himachal Pradesh

South &Southeast: Haryana Southwest: Rajasthan

State symbols of Punjab:

State symbol


State Animal

Black Buck

State Bird


State Flower


State Tree



Districts of Punjab:

Punjab state divided into 22 districts:





Fatehgarh Sahib










Sri Muktasr Sahib




Sahibzada Ajit singh Nagar


Shahid Bhagat singh Nagar

Tarn Taran

The districts of Punjab are divided into five administrative divisions :






Facts about districts of Punjab:

Largest district(Areawise)


Smallest district(Areawise)


Largest district(population)


Largest district(population densisty)


Highest literacy rate district


Lowest literacy rate district


Highest sex ratio district


Lowest sex ratio district



Punjab state consists of a Parliamentary form of Government and the chief minister is head of the state government. Punjab has a unicameral legislative assembly with 117 seats.


Punjab State

Punjab is a developed state in India. Punjab’s GDP is the US $ 90 billion. Punjab is known as “ Granary of India” or “ India’s bread-basket” because the state produces approximately 20% of India’s wheat and 10% of India’s rice. Wheat, rice, and cotton are the main crops of Punjab. Pollutry and animal husbandry are also famous in Punjab. There are many industries in Punjab mainly Hosiery, agricultural’s tools and equipment, pharma industries and agri-products, etc.


Punjab covers 06.12% area by Forest. Hoshiarpur district covers the largest forest area. There are many zoological parks and Botanical Parks in Punjab.

(A) Zoological Parks:

1. Deer Park Bir Talab: Barnala       

2. Deer Park: Neelon( Ludhiana)

3. Deer Park Bir Moti Bagh: Patiala 

4. Mahindra Chouduary Zoological Park: Mohali

5.Tiger Safari: Ludhiana

(B) Botanical Gardens:

1. Aam Khas Bagh:  Sirhind(Fatehgarh Sahib)

2. Baradari Garden: Patiala

3. Kaima Botanical Garden: Kapurthala        

4. Ram Bagh: Amritsar

5. Shalimar Botanical Garden: Kapurthala


According to the 2011 census:


27743338(16th Rank in India)

Annual Growth


Population % in India


Average Density

551 per Sq. KM

Sex Ratio


Sex ratio(between age 0 to 6 yrs)


Literacy Rate


Religion in Punjab:













Punjab is the birthplace of the Sikh religion and established by Guru Nanak Dev.

Sikh gurus in Sikhism:

Punjab State
Guru Nanak Devji

1. Guru Nanak(1469-1539) was the first Sikh guru and born in Talwandi currently known as “ Nankana Sahib". He established the Sikh religion.

2. Guru Angad(1539-1552): He invented the Gurumukhi script of Punjabi language.

3. Guru Amar Das(1552-1574): He prominently started free Kitchen popularly known as “Langar” and abolished Sati in Sikh Religion.

4. Guru Ram Das(1574-1581):  He was the founder of Amritsar city and took the land for it from Akbar as a donation.

5. Guru Arjun Dev(1581-1606): He wrote Adi Granth(Guru Granth Sahib).

6. Guru Hargovind(1606-1645): He built “Akal Takht”.

7. Guru Har Pal(1645-1661): He supported Dara Shikoh for accession in the Mughal empire.

8. Guru Har Kishan(1661-1664): he was the youngest Sikh Guru.

9. Guru Teg Bahadur(1664-1675): He didn't accept Islam so that he executed by Aurangzeb.

10. Guru Gobind Singh(1675-1708): He was the last guru of Sikh religion and founded “ Khalsa Pantha”.

Panch Takht:

1. Akal Takht Sahib: Amritsar( Oldest Takht)  

2. Takht Sri Damdama Sahib: Talwandi(Guru ki Kashi in Pakistan) 

3. Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib: Anandpur Sahib

4. Takht Sri Hazur Sahib: Nanded(Maharashtra)

5. Takht Sri Patna Sahib: Patna( Bihar).



Punjab consists of 6 airports in which 2 airports are international and 4 domestic airports.

1.       Sri Guru Ramdass Jee international airport: Amritsar

2.       Chandigarh international airport: Chandigarh

3.       Bathinda airport: Bathinda

4.       Adampur airport: Adampur(Jalandhar)

5.       Pathankot airport: Pathankot

6.       Sahnewal airport: Ludhiana


Punjab consists of an extensive network of Indian railways. It comes under the northern zone of Indian railways under the ministry of railways. Bathinda, Amritsar, Patiala, Jalandhar, and Ludhiana, etc. are major stations in Punjab.

Bathinda station in Punjab has a maximum number of railway lines in Asia. Amritsar is the busiest railway station in Punjab.


Punjab has good connectivity to major cities through road transport in India. There are many expressways and national highways that pass through the state.

(A) Major national highways in Punjab:

NH1: Delhi to Amritsar, NH10: Fazilka to Delhi, NH15: Pathankot to Samakhiali(Gujarat), NH70: Jalandhar to Manali

(B) Major Expressways in Punjab:

Amritsar to Jamnagar expressway, Delhi-Amritsar-Katra expressway, and Pathankot-Ajmer expressway.


Punjab is famous for historical monuments, Indus civilization sites, and religious shrines.

Historical monuments: 

(A) There are many forts in Punjab such as Gobindgarh fort(Amritsar), Qila Mubarak(Bathinda), Anandpur Sahib Fort(Rupnagar), Phillaur fort(Ludhiana), etc.

(B) The famous museums are also present in Punjab such as  Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum(Amritsar), Anglo Sikh War Memorial(Ferozepur), Sanghol Museum(Fatehgarh Sahib), Rural Museum at Punjab agriculture university in Ludhiana, Museum of Armory & Chandeliers Qila Mubarak(Patiala) and Sports Museum at National Institute of Sports in Patiala, etc.

(C) Jalliawala Bagh at Amritsar is famous for the martyrdom of Indian freedom fighters.

Religious Shrines:

1. Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar is the most sacred place for Sikh Community and famous Golden temple situated inside it.

2. Sri Anandpur Sahib consists of the Khalsa heritage museum complex and famous for the Hala Mohalla festival.

3. Devi Talab Mandir situated in Jalandhar and devoted to the goddess Durga. Harballabh classical music fest in Devi Talab temple Jalandhar is the oldest cultural music fest of India.

Ropar in Punjab is an archaeological site where evidence of Indus valley civilization found here. Attari- Bagha Border is famous for the evening parade between India and Pakistan forces.

Culture and Festivals:

(A) Dance:

Punjab is well-known for its popular dance all over India. Bhangra and Giddha is a form of dance and music. Bhangra dance celebrates during to coming harvest season. Dhola, Shammai, and Dhammal are some other dance famous in Punjab.

(B) Festivals:

Punjab is known for its different styles of festivals celebration. Lohri, Vaisakhi, Gurpurb, Guru Ravidas Jayanti, Basant, Deepavali, and Teeyan, etc. festivals celebrate in Punjab.

Rural Olympic festival held at Kila Raipur in Ludhiana.

(C) Folklore:

Many dialects are present in Punjab but Majhi considers as the main dialect of Punjabi language. Other dialects are Malwai, Doabi, and Puadhi.

Many folk-tales are famous in Punjab such as Sohni Mahiwal, Heer Ranjha, and Jagga Jatt, etc.

Phulkari is the geographical indication of Punjab.

Educational Institutes in Punjab:

1. Indian Institute of Technology: Ropar

2. Indian Institute of Management(IIM): Amritsar

3. All India Institue Medical & Science(AIIMS): Bathinda

4. National Institue Pharmaceutical Science &Research(NIPER): Mohali

5. Indian Institutes Scientific Education & Research(IISER): Mohali

6. National Institute of Technology(NIT): Jalandhar

7. Central University of Punjab: Bathinda

8. Punjab University: Chandigarh

9. Punjab Agriculture University: Ludhiana

10. Punjab Sports University: Patiala

11. Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law: Patiala

12. Institute of Nanoscience and technology: Mohali

Famous Personalities of Punjab:

1. Rakesh Sharma: First Indian astronaut in space.

2. Hargobind Khurana: Nobel Prize winner in Medicine.

3. Kiran Bedi: First IPS in India.

4. Karam Singh: First Living recipient of the Param Vir chakra.


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