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 In modern science, many Indian scientists in physics have greatly contributed to research work and provide benefits to humanity. India has been a knowledge hub country since ancient times.

Indian scientist in Physics

  • Sir C V Raman 
  • Professor Jagadish Chandra Bose 
  • Professor Satyendra Nath Bose 
  • Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha 
  • Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai
  •  Professor Meghnad Saha 
  • Profeesor Subramanyan Chandrasekhar 

Sir C V Raman

Indian Scientists in Physics
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  •  Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman was a great Indian physicist. 
  • He was born on 7th November 1888 at Thiruvanaikoil, Madras Presidency British India (Now in Tamilnadu, India). 
  • He was a pioneer in experimental physics.
  • C V Raman was highly influenced by Edwin Arnold ‘s classic book “ The Light of Asia”.  
  • C V Raman was the first Indian and Asian who won the Nobel prize in any branch of science. 
  • He won the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his contribution in scattering of light known as “Raman Effect”.
  •  National science day is celebrated every year on 28th February in commemoration of his discovery “Raman Effect”.   
  • Sir C V Raman was one of three recipients who got the highest civilian award of India that means “Bharat Ratna '' in 1954.

Scientific achievements 

  • Raman effect: “Change of wavelength exhibited by some of the radiation scattered in a medium”. The main uses in chemistry for analyzing composition of solids, gases and liquids. 
  • Blue Colour of Sea.
  •  Acousto-optic effect: he and his student explained that light scattered by sound waves is known as “Raman-Nath theory”.

Professor Jagadish Chandra Bose 

Indian Scientists in Physics
      

  • Professor J.C. Bose was a famous Indian physicist, Biophysicist and mathematics.
  •  He was born on 30 November 1858 at Mymensingh, Bengal presidency, British India (Now in Bangladesh).
  •  He worked mainly in radio and microwaves optics.
  •  Professor J.C. Bose introduced modern science in India and is known as “father of Modern Indian science”. 
  •  He encouraged the foundation of experimental science in Indian subcontinent
  •  Professor J.C. Bose was the first Indian scientist who got fellowship from Royal society of London.
  •   Professor J.C. Bose is considered the “father of wireless communication”. 
  • He introduced science fiction in Bengali language and considered “father of Bengali science fiction”.

Scientific Achievements

  •  Professor J.C. Bose is mainly known for his work in millimetre waves, radio waves, crystal detector and crystal radio. 
  • Crescograph: The Crescograph device used to measure growth of plants. Professor J.C. Bose patented Crescograph in America, was the first Indian patent in America.
  • Coherer: Coherer is a device to detect radio waves frequency signals and was invented by Professor J.C. Bose. 
  • Professor J.C. Bose established the similarities between plants and animals. He explained that plans respond to external stimuli. 
  • Professor J.C. Bose demonstrated that communication signals can be sent through waves without any wire. Present modern day, the world uses wireless communication in many fields such as the internet, communication and signals etc.

Pofessor Satyendra Nath Bose: A Man who counted Photons

Indian Scientists in Physics
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  • Satyendra Nath Bose was a noted Indian physicist specially in theoretical physics. 
  • He was born on 1 January 1894 at Calcutta, Bengal presidency, British India (Now in West Bengal, India). 
  • Satyendra Nath Bose was an expert in Quantum Physics.
  •  He worked with many famous contemporary scientists in the world such as Albert Einstein, Marie Curie and Louis de Broglie etc. 
  • Satyendra Nath Bose was appointed first National Professor of Physics in 1959 and held this post for 15 years.

Scientific Achievements

  1.  Bose-Einstein statistics

  • S N Bose predicated a statics equation and approved by Einstein. 
  • The statics obeyed indistinguishable particles which have integer numbers of spins. E.g. Photons. 
  • Without Bose-Einstein statistics, we would not be able to count photons and predict their behaviour. 

  2. Bose-Einstein condensate: 

  •  Bose and Einstein predicate another state of matter. 
  • At very low temperature(absolute zero kelvin temperature) and very low pressure ( 1/100000), indistindustible particles of gases condensate and form a new state of matter known as Bose-Einstein condensate. 

 3. Bosons:

  •  Paul Dirac discovered two types of fundamental particles on basis of their spin, one is Fermions and Bosons. 
  • The fundamental particle Boson is named in honour of S N Bose for their work in this field. 
  • Without Bosons , we would never have understood  how matter came into being after the few moments of the Big Bang theory.


 Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha

Indian Scientists in Physics
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  •   Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha was a well known Indian nuclear physicist.
  •  He was born on 30 October 1909 Bombay in British India (Now in Maharashtra, India).  
  • Homi Jahangir Bhabha is considered the “Father of Indian Nuclear Programme''. 
  • He was a supporter of Peaceful use of Nuclear energy for humanity. 
  • Homi Jahangir Bhabha focused on developing a strategy known as “India three stage nuclear power programme” and use of thorium as main nuclear fuel.

Scientific achievements

  •  Homi Jahangir Bhabha was the first scientist who calculated the cross section of “Electron-Positron Scattering” and in honour of Bhabha Electron-Positron Scattering renamed as “Bhabha Scattering”. 
  • He was known for his work “Cascade process of cosmic radiations” to explain how primary cosmic rays come from outer space and interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles at ground level.
  •  Homi Jahangir Bhabha was founding director of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and Atomic Energy Establishment (AEET). 
  •  Atomic Energy Establishment renamed in honour of Homi J. Bhabha known as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre(BARC). BARC is considered as a cornerstone of Indian nuclear programme. 
  • He also established other institutes such as Atomic Energy Commission of India and Cavendish laboratory Indian institute of Science.

Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai

Indian Scientists in Physics
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  •  Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was a renowned Indian physicist. 
  • He was born on 12 August 1919 at Ahmedabad, Bombay Presidency (Modern day Gujarat). 
  • He was the first Indian physicist to start a space research programme in India. So that He is considered as “Father of Indian Space programme”.   
  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai also helped to develop nuclear power programmes in India.

Achievements

  •  Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was founder of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • He established “Physical Research Laboratory'' (PSL) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat in 1947. PSL is known as “the cradle of Space science in India''.
  •  A project started by  Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai for fabrication and launch of Indian satellite which helped to launch the first Indian satellite (Aryabhata) in Russian space aerodrome and set up in orbit. 
  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai initiated nuclear projects in India such as Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam and Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) in Jaduguda, Jharkhand.
  •  He helped to set up many other institutes such as Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad, Variable Energy Cyclotron Project in Calcutta and Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) in Hyderabad. 
  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai also established Space centre in Thiruvananthapuram (renamed as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre) and Space Application Centre in Ahmedabad. 
  • With the help of Homi Jahangir Bhabha, he established the first Rocket Launching Station near Thumba (Thiruvananthapuram) India.

Professor Meghnad Saha 

  • Meghnad Saha was one of the top elite astrophysicists in the world.
  •  He was born at Shaoratoli Dhaka, Bengal Presidency British India (now in Bangladesh).
  •  He was considered as one of the fathers of modern Astrophysics. 
  • Meghnad Saha was nominated 6 times for the Nobel Prize but did not win it because the Nobel Prize committee considered their work as a useful application, not a discovery.

Scientific Achievements

  •   The well-known work of Meghnad Saha is the thermal ionisation of elements and formulate an equation known as “Saha Equation”. 
  • He was the first scientist who relates the star's spectrum to its temperature and density through thermal ionisation equations. This led to foundation in fields of astrophysics. 
  • Meghnad Saha invented an instrument to measure the weight and pressure of solar rays. 
  • Meghnad Saha established the physics department in Allahabad University and the institute of Nuclear physics in Calcutta.

Professor Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

Indian Scientists in Physics
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  •  Subramanyan Chandrasekhar is an indian astrophysicist. 
  • Chandrasekhar was born on 19 October 1910 at  Lahore in Pakistan. 
  • He got a Nobel Prize in Physics “for his theoretical studies of physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of stars.”  in 1983.

Scientific Achievements

  • Subramanyan Chandrasekhar's theory  helped to study  the physical process of importance to the structure and evolution of stars. 
  • Structure and evolution of stars. 
  • Model for evolutionary stages of Black hole.
  • Dynamic friction: decelerating the stars and helps to stabilize the cluster of stars. 
  • Chandrasekhar limit: this unit explains the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf. Value of Unit: 1.4 M

Indian scientists in Physics contributed into many branches of the physics field such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics and nuclear physics etc.  Sir C V Raman and  Subramanyan Chandrasekhar got Nobel Prize in Physics. Meghanad Saha laid the foundation of astrophysics. Professor J C Bose established similarities between plants and animals in response to stimuli. This shows Indian scientific temper since ancient times.

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