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Samudragupta was a great ruler, warrior and patron of arts in ancient India. Samudragupta was considered “Napoleon of India'' due to their conquests. 

Samudragupta Napoleon of India
  Image Source: Indiatimes.com

The great Indian king ruled in ancient India from 335-380 AD under the Gupta dynasty. Samudragupta was son of Gupta emperor Chandragupta I and Kumardevi. He married Dattadevi.

Sources of accession of Samudragupta:

  •  Allahabad pillar inscription described that Samudragupta called himself as “Noble man” in Chandragupta court and appropriate for throne.  
  • Eran stone inscription described that Samudragupta selected for throne on basis of their valour, devotion and righteous conduct by Chandragupta I. 
  •  Gold coin of the Gupta empire described that Samudragupta was “Exterminator of all kings” and known as “kacha”.

Military Conquest of Samudragupta: 

Samudragupta Napoleon of India
                                 
      Image Source: Indiatimes.com         

  • Samudragupta was a great military general and expertise. 
  • He wanted to unification of earth (Dharani-bandha) and became a Universal ruler (Chakaravarti). 
  • Historian V Smith considered SamudraguptaNapoleon of India” due to their military conquest in ancient India.
  •  V Smith explained Samudragupta's conquest on the basis of Allahabad pillar inscription which was written by Royal court Poet of Samudragupta ``Harisena” in Brahmi script.
  • Allahabad pillar inscription was only reliable source of Samudragupta victories and explained in chronological order. 
  • In pillar inscription inscribed title “Prakarma” (Valorous)  because he fought a hundred wars and a hundred wounded marks on his body.
  •   Mathura stone inscription inscribed “exterminator of all kings” for Samudragupta.
  • This signifies bravery of Samudragupta. Samduragupta had taken different strategies for different region of ancient India. Samudragupta controlled directly in Northern part of India, kings of South India accepted sovereignty of Samudragupta, tribal kings of India accepted sovereignty with tribute to Samudragupta and kings of forest region accepted order and gave tribute to Samudragupta. 
  • He also maintained a powerful navy.

East: Bengal and Assam (Brahmaputra River)
 West: Punjab (Ravi River)  
North: Himalayan foothills
 South: Vindhyan Hills

During the early period of Samudragupta reign:

  • He uprooted the kings of Aryavarta( North India) namely Achyuta, Nagsena and Ganapati-Naga. 
  • Samudragupta controlled directly under their kingdom. 
  • These kings belonged to present day Westren Uttar Pradesh.

Victory over Dakshinapstha kingdom:

  • Samudragupta defeated twelve kings of Dakshinapatha but released later after these kings accepted the sovereignty of Samudragupta and favoured (Anugraha) .
  • Samudragupta gave “protection and aid” to Dakshinpath kingdom and in order to secure their alliance.
  •   He defeated kings of Dakshinapatha listed under: Mahendra of Kosala, Vyaghra Vaja of Mahakantara, Mantaraja of Kurala, Mahendragiri of Pishtapura, Svamidatta of Kottura, Damana of Erandapalla, Vishnugopa of Kanchi, Nibraja of Avamukta, Hastivaman of Vangi, Ugrasena of Palakka, Kubera of Devarashtra, Dhananjaya of Kushal Empire.

Victory over Aryavarta kings:

  • Samudragupta forcefully uprooted the nine kings of Aryavart of Northern India and annexed his empire. 
  • The kings of Aryavarta who were defeated by Samudragupta listed: Rudradeva, Matila, Nagadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapatinaga, Nagasena, Achyutta-Nandin and Balavarman.

Victory over Frontier and Tribes kings:

  • Allahabad pillar inscription described that frontier kings and tribes gave tribute to Samudragupta and fulfilled their orders.
  •  It includes five frontier kings: Sarmatia (Bengal), Davaka(Assam), Kamrupa(Assam), Nepala(Nepal) and Karttripura( Uttrakhand).

  • Meghavarman, king of Sinhala (modern day Srilanka) requested Samudrgupta to build a monastery for Buddhist monks convenience. Samudragupta granted permission to build a monastery.

South–Asia kingdoms: 

  • South-Asia kingdoms sent their ambassadors to Gupta dynasty. 
  • These kingdom connected through maritime route and “Tamralipti” was a seaport of Gupta dynasty.
  •  Sanskrit language was widely used in South-East Asia. 
  • Samudragupta’s name appears in Javanese text “Tantri Nandaka”.

Facts about Samudragupta:

  • Samudragupta was a staunch believer of Hinduism and especially a devotee of lord Vishnu
  • During his reign, Brahmanism and Sanskrit language flourished very well. He was tolerant towards other religions also.  
  • Samudragupta was only king after Ashoka, the great unification of India.
  •  Samudragupta revived the “Ashwamedha” (Sacrifice of Horse) to control over another kingdom and assumed the title “ Maharajadhiraja”. 
  •  He was an ideal king during the Golden age of ancient India. 
  • There were seven types of gold coins to issue during their reign: the standard type, the ashwamedha type, the tiger type, the king and queen type, the lyre type, the archer type and the battle axe type.
 
Samudragupta Napoleon of India

 Image Source: Indiatimes.com
  • Title: Napolean of India, Prakarma, Maharajadhiraja and Kaviraja. 
  • He was a great admirer of Music and arts and also played Veena.
Samudragupta Napoleon of India

 Image Source: Indiatimes.com   

Samudrgupta was a great ruler, administration and warrior who controlled all over ancient India. There were a few in history which achieved this position. During their ruling, ancient India called "Golden Age of India".

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  1. Samdragupta was a great ruler in gupta dynasty and his achievements played great role indian supremacy in region.

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