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India is the 7th largest country in the world (2.4% 0f the total surface area of the world) and is the part of Asia continent in the Northern hemisphere. It is part of the Indian subcontinent which is well-defined geographically unit..

Name of countries in Indian subcontinent:

India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Nepal
Afghanistan
Srilanka
Bhutan
Maldives
  • India is considered a subcontinent because it comprises all characteristics of the continent but small in size. 
  • India is covered by young fold Himalayan mountain chains in north-east, north-west and north parts of India, and washed by the Indian ocean with its two branches the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal in south-west, south-east and south parts of India.
  • India occupies most parts of Indian subcontinent of southern Asia and is divided into three geographic regions: The Himalayan region, the Gangetic plains. And the Indian Peninsula

India Location and size:

  •  India located in part of Indian subcontinent and the Asia continent of the Northern hemisphere. India is located entirely in tropical and subtropical zones of the Northern hemisphere.
  •  India has a central position between East and West Asia. It is the southwards extension of the Asian continent. It lies to the east of the prime meridian. India's latitudinal and longitudinal extent is about thirty degrees.

India
7th largest country
Total area
32,87,263 Sq. km
Latitude
84°N to 37°6'N
Longitude
68°7’E TO 97°25'E
North to South
3214 km
West to east
2933 km
Standard Meridian time of India
82°30’ E longitude (05.30hrs)

Important points: 

India location
                              Image
  • The Northernmost point of India is Indira Col in Jammu and Kashmir.
  •  The southernmost point of the country is the Pygmalion Point or Indira Point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
  • The north-south extent from Indira Col to Kanyakumari is 3214 km. 
  • The east-west width from the Rann of Kachchh to Arunachal Pradesh is 2933 km.
  •  India’s land boundary is 15200 Km. and Bangladesh shares the largest land boundary.
  •  The total length of coastline mainland including Adman and Nicobar island and Lakshadweep is 7516.6 km.

Impact of the latitude and longitude in India:

Climate: 

  • The tropic of cancer divided India into two parts.
  • The north of the tropic of cancer, India experiences the subtropical climate because sun rays strike obliquely so that the north part of India receives the less amount of insolation. 
  • The southern part of the tropic of cancer, south parts of India has tropical climate because sun rays strike the earth surfaces nearly vertically at noon and surrounded by the Indian ocean in three sides help to keep the temperature warm.

Length of day and night: 

  • A lot of time difference in the day and night in northern parts of India and the Southern arts of India which depends on the position of the equator.
  • Time differences in the day and night increase when moving from the equator to poles. 
  • The difference between day and night in Southern India is very low because it lies near the equator.
  •  The difference between day and night in northern India is high because it is away from the equator. For example, lakh has 5hrs time difference and south parts of India has only 45 minutes.

Time periods: 

  • The earth rotates from West to East so that Sun rises in Arunachal Pradesh first which is located in the northeast parts of India and Sun rises two hours before from its Westernmost part of India (Rann of Kutch).

Indian ocean: A strategic importance:

  • Indian ocean located east, west and south parts of India. 
  • The southern parts of the Peninsula divide the Indian ocean into two branches one is the Bay of Bengal and other is the Arabian sea.
  •  India occupies the longest coastline areas from any other country and this makes Indian an eminent position in Indian ocean that justifies that name of Indian ocean. 
  • Indian located in the central position of West Asia and East Asia. Indian enjoys the strategic position especially to the international trade route connecting the eastern and western hemisphere which connect the countries of Europe in the West and countries of East Asia.

India international boundaries:

India location
                       Image
  • India shares its border with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
  • The nearest neighbor of India is Srilanka and separated through a narrow channel of sea formed by “Palk Strait'' and the Gulf of Mannar.
  •  Maldives situated in the south of Lakshadweep islands. 
  • Myanmar formerly known as Burma is the immediate neighbor of India in the northeast part of India and connects India to southeast Asia countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.

Northwest border of India
Pakistan & Afghanistan
North border of India
China, Nepal and Bhutan
East border of India
Bangladesh & Myanmar
South border of India
Srilanka & Maladies
Sr. no.
Country
Total length of border
1
Bangladesh
4096 km
2
China
3917 km
3
Pakistan
3310 km
4
Nepal
1752 km
5
Myanmar
1458 km
6
Bhutan
587 km
7
Afghanistan
80 km
LOC
LAC
LOC means the line of control.
LAC means the line of Actual control.
It defines the boundary separating parts of Kashmir controlled by India and Pakistan.
It is the boundary between India and China.
LOC is marked by the militaries
LAC is marked by the vast empty space.
The boundary between India and China is called McMahon line. But the boundary between India and China is known as the Line of Actual Control. 

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