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Red Fort, Delhi
Red Fort

The Red Fort( Qila-E-Mubarak) or Lal Qila is a massive walled citadel with red sandstone and situated in Delhi, India. This fort was declared a UNESCO world heritage site in 2007 under cultural heritage category.The Red fort served as seat for the Mughal emperor for 200 years and was the main residence of the Mughal emperor. After the  independence, the flag hoisting by the Prime Minister of India occurs every year on 15th August on the rampart  of the Red Fort near the Lahori gate.

      Name
Red Fort or Lal Qila
( Qila-E-Mubarak)
Build
1648
Emperor
Shahjahan
Architure
Indo-Islamic
Architect
Ustad Ahmad Lahori
location
Old Delhi, India
UNESCO heritage
2007
Open
Tuesday to Sunday, Monday closed
Mughal residence
1648-1857

                    The Red fort represents the zenith of the Mughal architecture and reflects the fusion of Persian, Timurid and the Hindu architecture. The Fort encompasses a complex of palaces, mosques,geometric gardens, entertainment places and a whole complex covered by massive walled walls which was made from the red sandstone. The name of the Lal Qila is given by its massive red sandstone wall.

History:

  1. The Red Fort Complex was built during the reign of  the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. After he shifted his capital from Agra to Shahjahanabad . The Red Fort became the main residence of the Mughal emperor.
  2. In 1747, Nadir Shah invaded the fort and plundered its artworks and jewels.
  3. In 1857, precious marble structures were destroyed by British after the 1857 rebellion.

Architecture:

  1. The architecture style is Indo-Islamic which reflects the fusion Persian, Timurid and the Hindu architecture.
  2. Ustad Ahmad Lahori was the main architect of the Red Fort Complex, also known for built the Taj Mahal.
  3. The fort has octagonal shape with asymmetrical boundaries and north-south axis longer than the east-west axis.
  4. The fort-palace was the focal point of the medieval city of the Shahjahanabad.
  5. The marble, floral decorations and double dome in the fort building exemplify later Mughal architecture.

Major structure:

The lahori gate:

1.Main gate of the fort, main entrance and national flag hoisted  from this gate and made from red sandstone.
2. Addition of bastions during Aurangzeb reign.

 The Delhi gate:

1.South side of the fort, similar to the Lahori gate and public entrance.
2.Two huge stone elephants on it which face each other.

Nahr-i-Bihisht: 

1.literally known as “Stream of Paradise ''.
2.The pavilions in the imperial apartments connected by the canal known as “Nahr-i-Bihisht” and water was drawn from the Yamuna river via a tower “Shahi Burj”.

Mumtaz mahal: 

1.literally means “Jewel Palace” located inside the Red Fort.
2.The palace is one of six main palaces and all six palaces connected by a stream of Paradise.
3.Mumtaz Mahal was part of the “Zenana”(women quarters) and another one was Rang Mahal.
4.It was one of the apartments of the royal princesses.
5.The palace was constructed with white marble in the lower half of its walls and pillars and in the six apartment in the Mumtaz mahal divided by arch pillars, interior decorated with flower design.

The Rang Mahal:

1. literally means “Palace of Colour '' due to brightly coloured paintings, also known as “Chhota Rang Mahal '' or small coloured palace.
2.Originally as a part of imperial Harem and was also known as “the Palace of Distinction ''.
3.Interior of the palace decorated with paintings.
4.The palace was mainly for the emperor's wife and mistress.
5.Central part of the palace has a marble pool which was fed by Nahr-i-Bihisht.
6. The Rang Mahal is divided by a marble water channel with an exquisite basin and ivory foundation carved in the form of a bloomy lotus.
7.The Rang Mahal has two vaulted chambers known as “Sheesh Mahal '', which were once ornamented with cut mirrors rooted in the walls and ceiling.

The Khas Mahal: 

1.it is located next to the Diwan-i-Khas in the Red Fort.  
2.The palace was the emperor 's private residence located inside the Red Fort.
3.It consists of three parts: a. Tasbih Khana(Private worship chamber) b. Khwabgah (Sleeping Chamber) c. Wardrobe (Toshakhana) or Baithak( to relax), and connect to the Zenana.
4.The white marble painted in interior with coloured floral decoration.
5.The marble screen  was carved with the scale of justice (Mizan-i-Adal) which was the important item of Mughal art which separates the Khwabgah from outside.
6.Muthamman Burj- octagonal tower, on the east side of the Khas Mahal and the burj was used for the traditional practice of the public appearance of the emperor which was built by  emperor Akbar Shah II.
7. In1911 during coronation darbar king Geroge-V and queen Mary appeared from the balcony of the burj.

Diwan -i- Aam:



Red Fort, Delhji
Diwan-i-Aam



Diwan-i-Khas: 

1.The Hall of Audience, was also known as “Shah Mahal '' and located inside the Red Fort.
2. Mainly used for cultural meetings, administration, state grievances with administrators and also used for receiving courtiers and state guests..
3.It consists of a rectangular central chamber surrounded by a series of archers rising from piers.
4.The lower part of piers are inlaid with floral design, while the upper portions are gilded and painted.
5.The four corners of its roof are surrounded by pillared chhatries.
6. Over the marble pedestal in its centre stood the famous'' Peacock Throne” which was removed in 1739 by Nadir Shah.
7.Through the center of the hall flowed the Nahr-i-Bihisht.
8. Over the corner arches of the northern and southern walls below the cornice is inscribed the famous verse of Amir Khusrao exclaiming “If there be a paradise on the earth, it is this, it is this, and it is this' '.

Red Fort, Delhi
Diwan-i-Khas

Hammam:

1. To the north of Diwan-i-Khas is the Hammam, which were extravagant royal bath houses for the emperor and the family, an imperial bathroom, consisting of three doomed rooms and a floor with white marble.
2.The extensive Peitra Dura work on the floor, along with exquisitely carved basin, when combined with flowing water, could have created magical effects.
Red Fort, Delhi

                                  Hammam


Moti Masjid( Pearl Mosque): 

1.White marble mosque located inside the Red Fort which was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb from 1659-1660 for personal use.
2.The prayer hall of the mosque has 3 arches and it is divided into two aisles and surmounted with three bulbous domes.
3.The mosque was also used by the ladies of the seraglio (Harem) who entered through a passage in the northern wall of the enclosure.
4.The mosque is built over the raised plinth and is entered through an eastern arched gateway with a copper plated door.
5.Interior of the mosque is composed of entirely of pure white marble .
6.The prayer hall of the mosque is laid with outlines of “musalles”(small carpets of prayers) in black marble and it.
Red Fort, Delhi
Moti Masjid

Hayat Bakhsh bagh(life Bestowing Garden): 

1.To the north of Moti masjid, the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh based on the concept of paradise gardens .
2.This char bagh is divided into squares with pathways and water channels running through it.
3.The garden has several pavilions named Sawan, Bhadon and Hira Mahal and Zafar mahal.
4.Sawan and Bhadon pavilion  are made from white marble and named after the Hindu months, Sawan and Bhadon.
5. Zafar Mahal built by Bahadur Shah Zafar, stands broad in the centre of the garden inside a large tank, once completely filled with the water from Nahr-i-Bihisht, or the Stream of Paradise.
6.Brought from the Yamuna through Shah Burj, it flowed through the palaces and the gardens with a series of water channels, fountains and cascades.
7.The stream was the reason that made this palace a paradise on earth.

The Chhatta chowk:

1. Beyond the iconic the Lahori gate lies the Chhatta Chowk, also known as Meena Bazaar.
2.The bazaar built on the concept of Persian Bazaars. 
3.The shops used to sell exquisite items from across the world to showcase the wealth of the empire.
Today the handicrafts and jewellery shops serve to lure the tourists.

Naubat khana:

1.The next to the Chhatta chowk inside the Red Fort.
2.Naqqar Khana was used to formally announce the arrival of the emperor and other dignitaries.
3.In the fort, music was played five times a day from its galleries.
4.Built out of red sandstone, the three storeyed building has carved floral designs on its fa├žade.

Hira Mahal:

1. A white marble pavilion in the Red fort and built during the reign of Bahadur Shah II.
There are three museums within the Red Fort complex:

A) Indian War Memorial Museum : was set up in Naubat Khana in 1919 to showcase various artilleries used during the first world war.

B) The Archaeological Museum : was set in Mumtaz Mahal in 1909 to display collections of Mughal period.

C) Swadheenta Sangram Sangrahalaya : set up in 1995 in which shows glimpses of the Indian national freedom movement.

A Swatantrata Senani Smarak is located in the Salimgarh Fort to commemorate heroes of the Indian National Army.

Location
Red fort Metro station(violet line)
Time
09.30 am - 04.30 pm
Open
Tuesday - Sunday, Monday closed
Ticket price
80/- (India,BIMSTEC,SAARC)
500/- (Foreigners)
Light & sound show Timings
07.30 pm -08.30 pm (May to August)
07.00 pm - 08.00 pm (Sep. to Oct.)
06.00 pm to 07.00 pm (Nov to Jan)
07.00 pm - 08.00 pm (Feb to Apr)
Address
Netaji Subhash Marg, Chandni Chowk, New Delhi, Delhi, 110006, India

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