Group of monuments at Pattadakal
       Image source
Group of monuments at Pattadakal is a UNESCO 
heritage site under cultural category in 1987 which is situated on the bank of Malaprabha river Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India.
 UNESCO described it as representing the high point of eclectic art which in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms of northern and southern India.
 Group of monuments at Pattadakal consist of ten temples including  
  • Four temples (Dravidian style),
  •  Four (Nagar style),
  •  One temple (Mix style) and 
  • Jain temple 
       So that Group of monuments at Pattadakal is called “University of Architecture ''. 
Pattadakal literally means coronation stone because the royal ceremony and commemoration was held at pattadakal. All Hindu temples are dedicated to lord Shiva  but elements of vaishnavism and shaktism are also present.
Visiting places of the Pattadakal temples:
Virupaksha temple:
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
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  • Virupaksha temple is the largest, most sophisticated and best temple in the Pattadakal temples. 
  • The temple was built by Lokmahadevi, wife of Maharaja Vikramaditya II, in 745 A.D. as a memorial of victory over the Pallava dynasty of her husband. 
  • The temple is built in Dravidian style of architecture. 
  • The virupaksha temple built on the structure line of the Kailashnath temple (Kanchi) and acted as a model to Kailashnath temple (Ellora) which was built by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. 
  • The temple is famous for its sculpture art such as “lingo bhavan” and “Nataraja” etc. The temple is the only functioning shrine in the temple complex.
Sangameshwar temple: 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
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  •  Sangameshwar temple built in 725A.D. by MaharajaVijayadiitya satryashey in Dravidian style which is the oldest temple at Pattadakal
  • The temple is also called Vijayeswara temple. Main vimana is a three storey temple.
Mallikarjuna temple: 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
        Image source 
  •  Mallikarjuna temple built in 745 A.D. by second queen of Vikramaditya, Trilokamahadevi on a commemorate the victory of Chalukayas over Pallava.  
  • The temple is replica of the Virupaksha temple in small form. The temple is also known as “ Trilokeshwara maha Sila prasada” and The four storey vimana in temple with a circular grievance and shikar. 
  • There are many sculptures presented inside the temple such as Mahisasurmardani, Samudra manthan and Narimha fighting with Haranyakashika etc.
Kadasiddeshwar temple: 
  • Kadasiddeshwar temple built during the 9th century in Nagara style of architecture.
  •  The temple comprises a square sanctuary with linga and a hall without pillars. 
  • The doorframe is  adorned with the image of Shiva Parvati flanked by Brahma and Vishnu of the two windows in the hall; the one with Swastika pattern is original. 
  • The temple outer walls are raised in a basement which has an octagonal course rounded beneath the three sides of the sanctuary.
  •  In the sanctuary walls niches are the images of Lakulisa (South), Harihara(west) and Ardhanari(north). There is a famous sculpture of Shiva in which he holds a trident or trishul in his hand.
Jambulinga temple: 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
       Image source 
  • The Nagara style architecture where the shivlinga are present, and outside of the temple with the statue of goddess Parvati and Nandi .
  •  The temple is also known as “Jan Narayan Temple” because it is used by the common people. 
  • The temple was made on the structure lines of “Hucchimalli Guddi” at Aihole.
Galaganatha temple : 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
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The lord shiva is depicted as beating the Andhakasur( a demon).
Kashinath temple: 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
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  • The temple is also known as the “Kashishekhara temple” and based on nagara style architecture.
  • The temple was built to start in the Rashtrakuta dynasty but completed in the early phase of Chalukya dynasty.
Chandrashekara temple: 
Temple had no superstructure on the top of garbha griha. The temple is dedicated to lord Shiva.
Papanatha temple : 
Group of monuments at Pattadakal
       Image Source
  • The temple built in Vesara style(means both Dravidian and Nagara style) in 680 A.D. because the temple started in the Nagar style but later changed into Dravidian style. 
  • The temple does not have any Manadapa.
  •  The sculpture of the Papanatha temple is based on the scenes of the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  •  A similar temple is present  in Alampur in Andhra pradesh known as “Navabharma temple “.
Jain temple
  • The temple built on the Dravidian style and last structure built at Pattadakal during reign of king Krishna II of Rashtrakuta. 
  • The temple is dedicated to lord Parshvanath.
See also Bridhishvara temple is first shallow temple in world. 


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  1. Indian temples are very interesting
    I did not know before it


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