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Group of monuments at Hampi is a UNESCO world heritage site under cultural heritage which was the centre of Hindu religion, located near the bank of river Tungabhadra at Bellary district of Karnataka, India. UNESCO described it an “austere grandiose site” because it has surviving remains of the last great Hindu kingdom in south India and consist of temples, forts, palaces, mandapas, memorial halls etc. 
Hampi is situated on a hilly terrain which was mainly formed from granite boulders. Group of monuments at Hampi built between 1336 A.D. to 1570 A.D. in Vijaynagar empire. The village was known as Pampa Kshetra or Kishkindha Kshetra (explained in epic Ramayana) was derived from the old name of Tungabhadra river which was known as Pampa. Colin Mackenzie who discovered the ruins of Hampi in 1800 A.D. and called it “City of Ruins”. There are more than 1600 surviving remains that includes forts, riverside features, sacred temples complex, shrines, pillared halls, open pillared halls, gateways, and defence check post. The Battle of Talikota in 1565 A.D.  destroyed the Vijaynagar empire.
Architecture:
1. The temple complex built on the Dravidian architecture style which consist of shrines, markets, residential areas and water tanks applying unique hydraulic technology. 
2. There was integration between planned town and defence architecture with landscapes.
3. The unique features of the temple are wide chariot structure shaped which flanked by the row of pillared mandaps because it was used for chariot festival which was an integral part of rituals.
4.Most structures of Hampi are built from local granite, burnt bricks, lime mortar.
5.The stone masonry and lantern roof present and lintel system were the most famous construction technology. The Gopuram and sanctum were constructed with stone and bricks.
6.Heavy thick granite slab with water proof of broken jelly and lime mortar used to build the roof.
7.Blend mixture of Indo-Islamic architecture also showed in secular buildings such as the Queen Bath and the Elephant Stables etc.
Major visiting sites at Hampi:
Virupaksha Temple: 

1.The temple was built during the reign of King Dara Raya II of Vijayanagar empire in Dravidian architecture style in Hampi for pilgrimage, also known as
Pampa Devi temple. 
2.
The oldest Hindu shrine in all temples of Hampi which is dedicated to lord Virupaksha (a form of Shiva) and present in Mukhalinga embossed with brass in sanctum. 
3.The main temple consists of a sanctum (Shiva linga present), three ante chambers, pillared halls and open pillared hall. 
4.The most striking feature is the “concept of fractal” which means never ending pattern and given triangle shape to temple. 
5.Rangamantapa: a centre pillared hall built by Krishna devaraya in year 1510 A.D. which consist of 38 pillared, mainly used for temple rituals, marriage. The mural paintings are present which are based on godly themes. 
6.In the south of the temple, 12 pillared pavilion situated where the god Ganesh statue is present.
7.A hole in a temple room when rays of sun strike to hole, the image of gopuram can see inverted form. 
8.Pampa Devi temple and Bhuneshwari Devi temple also present in consort form with lord Shiva.
Vitthal temple: 
1.Vitthal temple is a masterpiece of Indian architecture, largest temple and most viewed in Hampi city. 
2.The temple complex surrounded by tall walls with 3 gateways. 
3.Gopuram: entrance gateway, its lower part built from stone and upper part built from bricks and mortar. Giant wooden door fit in centre of gopuram. The gopuram in pyramidal shape decorated mythological theme. 
4.Two major attraction in Vithal temple: 
a.)Vithal chariot:
Group of monuments at Hampi
Vital Chariot 
                 Source: hampi online.in
 1.built during reign of Krishna devaraya which was great influenced by sun temple konark. 
2.Only three chariot shape stone temple, others are sun temple konark and Mahabalipuram. The monolithic chariot shaped temple built from granite. 
3.The architects were smartly hide every joints with decoration in stone chariot. The wheel of stone chariot carved in flower design.
4.The stone chariot is dedicated to Garua (vehicle of Lord Vishnu). 
5.Indian fifty rupees note in the backside shows the image of the stone chariot of Vitthal temple at Hampi. 
B) Musical pillars of Hampi
Group of monuments at Hampi
Musical pillars

1.The fifty-six pillar pavilion known as musical pillar pavilion or Ranga mantapa. 
2.One centre pillar is surrounded by seven small pillars, each pillar producing different notes of Sa, Re, Ga, Pa, Ma etc. in Sanskrit music. 
3.Also produced many musical tunes of different instruments such as veen devaraya a and table etc.
4.This showed the great example of ancient indian science technology which suggest that compound was geopolymer, blend of granite and silicate particles of metal alloy.
4. Pushkarani (stepped tank) with vasantotsav mandapa (ceremonial pavilion) at centre. 
5.Kalyana mandapa (ceremonial and marriage hall) and Utsava mandapa. 
6.The sculpture of yalis (a mythical creature) is also present in the Vithal temple.
Krishna temple : 
1.The Krishna temple at Hampi which is dedicated to lord Krishna ( in form of Balkrishna or Baby form) and built during reign of Krishnadevaraya of Vijaynagar empire in the year 1513A.D. the temple constructed after the winning of battle and annexure of Utkal   ( Udyayagiri). 
2.The temple opens to the east and its gopuram (main entrance) carved with reliefs of all ten avatars of lord Vishnu. 
3.The original image of Balkrishna is not present here, shifted to the Chennai museum.
 4.Two adjacent shrines are present near the Krishna temple in the south:
a) monolithic Shiva lingam 
b) largest monolithic yoga at Hampi: Narsimha (man in lion form) avatar of Vishnu built by Krishna devaraya in 1528 A.D.
Group of monuments at Hampi
Narsimha

Achyuta temple: 
1.The temple situated east of Virupaksha temple which is dedicated to lord Tiruvengalanatha (a form of lord Vishnu) and built by Achyuta devaraya.
2.This showed the best and most form of architecture style of Vijayanagar empire. 
3.The emblem of Vijayanagara dynasty was taken from its gopuram, consisting of Varah (form of lord Vishnu), Sun, Sword and Moon. 
4.The temple consists of garbhagriha, antarala(courtyard), sabha mandapa, mahasabha mandapa which is enclosed by Prakaram (Indian architecture in which sanctum is covered). 
5.The outer gopuram of the temple leads to courtyard which is 100 pillared hall and covered with relief of Vishnu, Shiva and Druga. Inner gopuram leads to the sanctum.
Hemakuta hill monuments: 
1.More than 30 small to moderate sized temples which represented the best example of pre-Vijayanagar and early Vijayanagar temples.
 2.The unique features of the temples are two temples are similar in style look similar in which each has Vimana consist of square sanctum connect to square mandapa.
3.Tlhe temples were study center for experiment with different types of Hindu temples such as Chalukya period, the Rashtrakuta period and later on. 
4.The monolithic Ganesha statue:
a) Kadalekalu Ganesha : name was given after Ganesha gram shaped belly. 
B) Saivekalu Ganesha: name was given after image of mustard seed belly.
Hazara Rama temple: 
Group of monuments at Hampi
Hazard Ramayana Temple
                   Source; explorebees.com 
1.This temple is famous for its thousands of carvings and inscription and its frescoes depicting Hindu theosophy. 
2.The temple is also known as Ramachandra temple, present in the central urban part of royal at Hampi and dedicated to lord Rama (an avatar of Vishnu). 
3.The ceremony was held in the temple in which the royal family also participated. 
4.The outer wall of the temple depicts the Hindu mahanavami(Dasara) and Holi festival processions, inner wall narrates Hindu epic Ramayana.
Kodandarama temple and river side monuments:
1.The temple complex situated south of Achyutaraya temple. 
2.There is a “Dipa Stambha'' (light pillar) under a Pipal tree and a sanctum is present inside it, dedicated to Rama, Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman. There are many small shrines such as Vithala, Anjaneya, Shiva and other deities.
Pattabhirama temple complex: 
1.The temple complex also known as Varadevi Ammana Pattana, built in the 16th century and dedicated to lord Rama (Vishnu avatar). 
2.The 100 pillared hall is present in the temple which was mainly used for the feeding hall and pillars have relief depicting Hindu themes such as scenes from Hindu text etc.
Mahanavami Platform, public square complex:
1.The ceremonial structures, the highest point inside the royal centre. Also called as “Great Platform” or “Audience Hall. 
2.The largest monuments have three square stages leading to a large, square platform with a wooden mandapa above it.
 3.There is a square water pavilion also called “Queen Bath” which reflects the Indo-Islamic style architecture.
Elephant stables and enclosure: 
1.The eleven square chambered aligned north-south also known as the “Gajashala” or elephant stables. 
Group of monuments at Hampi

2.The Lotus Mahal: a square, symmetrical Hindu mandapa design with lobed arches, vaults and dome of Indo-Islamic style.
Group of monuments at Hampi



Jain monuments: 
1.The Jain temple built during the 14th century which included Hemkut Jain temple, Gangagitti Jain temple and Parsvanath charan etc but most of idols are now missing. 
2.Gangagitti Jain temple is famous for monolithic lamp pillar

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