Convention of the conservation of migratory species of the wild animals  (CMS) provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of the migratory animals and their habitats. Conservation of migratory species (CMS) is also known as the Bonn Convention. CMS is an international agreement that aims to Conserve migratory species within their migratory ranges.

 Background: 
                     The CMS is a global platform under the aegis of the United Nation of Environment programme (UNEP) which formed during the agreement signed by countries on 6thNovember 1979 in Bonn, Germany, and CMS become effective from November1983.                         
   Presently 130 countries singed this agreement.
Name
CMS
Creation
6th November 1979
Effective from
1 November 1983
Headquarter
Bonn, Germany
Depository
Bonn, Germany
Language
English, German, French, Russian
website
www.cms.int.

Convention of the conservation of migratory species, guidelines come under 
the recommendation of the United Nation Conference on Human Environment
(Stockholm1972) and 27th annual meeting of the General Assembly of United
Nation. The contract parties under CMS determine the policy and further guidance on specific issues, finish their strategic plans, action plans, regulations, and guidelines. The signatories are followed as:

Article 1: Interpretation: 
      Under the article of the CMS, it covers the purpose of the convention and definition of the ‘Migratory species’, ‘Conservation Status’, Endangered species, Range State and Habitat etc.

Article II: Fundamental Principles:
               
         1. convention parties acknowledge the importance of the migratory species being conserved and of range, state agreeing to take action to this.
         2. The parties acknowledge the need to take action to avoid any migratory species become endangered.     
        3. Parties should promote cooperate, research, provides immediate protection for the migratory species include in appendix I and agreement convey the conservation and 
management of migratory species includes in appendix II.

Article III: Endangered migratory 
species – Appendix I     
       
Article IV: Migratory species to be the 
the subject of the agreement – Appendix II

Article V: Guidelines for Agreements:
                      The objective of each agreement shall be to restore the migratory species concerned with a favorable conservation status or to maintain such status.
Article VI: Range State:
                           Range state of the migratory species listed in Appendix I 
and Appendix II should be kept up to date by the secretariat using information
which has received from parties.
Article VII: Conference of Parties:
         The decision making organ of this convention and secretariat shall call a
meeting of the conference of the parties not later than two years after the entry into the force of this convention.
                   Functions:
                      1. Review and assess the conservation status of the migratory species.
                       2. Review the progress made towards the migratory species in
Appendix I and Appendix II.
                    3. Make provision and guidance to perform the smooth duties of the scientific council and the secretariat.
                    4. Receive and consider any reports presented by the scientific council, the secretariat, and any organization to be part of it.
                      5. Make recommendations to the parties for improving the effectiveness of the convention.
                     6. To implement the objective of the convention
Article VIII: The Scientific Council:
·        To provide scientific     matters
·        Criteria for selection and term of their
appointments shall be decided by COP.
Article IX: The Secretariat: The 
Secretariat is provided by the executive director of UNEP.
           Function:
1.     To arrange for and service meetings:
 i) of the Conference of the Parties, and ii) of the Scientific Council.   
           2. To maintain liaison with and promote liaison between the  Parties, the 
standing bodies set up under AGREEMENTS and other international organizations concerned With migratory species.
                      3. Prepare the reports of the COP and implement it. 
                      4. To maintain and publish a list of Range States of all migratory species included in Appendices I and II.
                      5. To promote, under the direction of the Conference of the Parties, the conclusion of AGREEMENTS.
                              6. To provide for the general public information concerning  this Convention and its objectives; and
                             7. To perform any other function entrusted to it under this Convention or by the Conference of the Parties.
Article X: Amendment of Convention:
                               Any amendment in the convention purposed in the COP. and
amended by the two-third majority of the parties.
Article XI: Amendment in Appendix:      Any amendment in the convention purposed in the COP. and amended by the two-third majority of the parties.
Article XII: Effect on International 
Conventions and Other Legislation:
The provisions of this Convention shall in no way affect the rights or  obligations of any Party deriving from any existing treaty, convention, or agreement.
Article XIII: Settlement of dispute:
Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the 
interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention shall be 
subject to negotiation between the parties involved in the dispute.
Article XIV: Reservations:
    The provisions of this Convention shall not be subject to general reservations. Specific reservations may be entered in accordance with the provisions of this 
Article and Article XI.
Article XV: Signature:
                              This Convention shall be open for signature at Bonn for all
States and any regional economic integration organization until the twenty-second day of June 1980.
Article XVI: Ratification, Acceptance, 
Approval:
             This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, which shall be the Depositary.
Article XVII: Accession:
                            After the twenty-second day of June 1980 this Convention shall be open for accession by all non-signatory States and any regional economic integration organization. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Article XVIII Entry into Force:
                           This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the
third month following the date of deposit of the fifteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Depositary.
Article XIX: Denunciation:
                                 Any Party may 
denounce this Convention by written
notification to the Depositary at any time. 
The denunciation shall take effect
twelve months after the Depositary has 
received the notification.
Article XX Depositary:
                                   The original of this Convention, in the English, French,
German, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic,
shall be deposited with the Depositary.

India in CMS:
               India signed in the agreement as a party in 1983. India hosted the first
time COP of CMS 13 in Mahatma Mandir at Gandhinagar in Gujarat state from
15 February to 22 February 2020.
              India is a signatory of the following agreement or MOU. Under CMS:
1. Siberian crane MOU (1999)
2. IOSEA marine turtle MOU (2001)
3. Dugong MOU (2007)
4.Central Asian flyway action plan 
for the conservation of the
migratory waterbirds and their habitats.

CMS-COP
YEAR
COUNTRY
CMS-COP I
1985
Germany
CMS-COP II
1988
Switzerland
CMS-COP III
1991
Switzerland
CMS-COP IV
1994
Kenya
CMS-COP V
1997
Switzerland
CMS-COP VI
1999
South Africa
CMS-COP VII
2002
Germany
CMS-COP VIII
2005
Kenya
CMS-COP IX
2008
Italy
CMS-COP X
2011
Norway
CMS-COP XI
2014
Ecuador
CMS-COP XII
2017
Philippines
CMS-COP XIII
2020
India
CMS-COP XIV



The conservation of the migratory species under UNEP helps to improve the conservation of habitat and migratory routes of the migratory species. This effort to protect migratory species to become endangered.

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